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What are some of the words Procopius uses to describe Justinian?


The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 1

 


 

DOCUMENT 4

 


 

According to the document what steps did Constantine

 

take to ensure Constantinople was a splendid city that

 

was well protected?

 


 

What is the official faith of the Byzantine Empire?

 


 

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What do these laws say about the level of tolerance

 

shown to those who don?t practice the official religion?

 


 

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DOCUMENT 2

 

What are some of the words Procopius uses to describe

 

Justinian?

 

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DOCUMENT 5 & 6

 

What purposes are served by the law in Doc 5?

 

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What does the law in doc 6 force peasant farmers to do?

 


 

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What additional document would you ask for to gain

 

more insight into this document? Why would it help?

 


 

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Which types of labor does Byzantine society depend on?

 

(Circle all that apply)

 


 

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Chattel Slavery (traditional slaves) Indentured Servants

 

Free Peasant Labor

 


 

Semi-Free Labor (serfs)

 


 

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DOCUMENT 7

 


 

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What unlikely event had to occur in order for the Nika

 

Rebellion to become as serious as it did?

 


 

DOCUMENT 3

 

Why does Procopius seem so happy about the Hagia

 

Sophia? Analyze his POV (keep in mind that the Hagia

 

Sophia is built almost 30yrs before he writes his Secret

 

History) What about who he is contributes to what he is

 

saying?

 


 

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Who is primarily responsible for convincing Justinian to

 

not run away?

 

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Explain which description of Justinian written by

 


 

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Procopius is supported by this passage? (Secret History or Hagia Sophia)

 


 

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The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 8

 


 

DOCUMENT 10 con?t

 


 

What statements are made by the author that allow us to

 

understand the enormous impact of the plague of 542?

 


 

What is going on outside of the Byzantine Empire which

 

might cause them to place generals in local government

 

positions? (900s CE) (Contextualization)

 


 

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DOCUMENTS 2-8

 

Justinian reigned from 527-565 CE. Summarize the

 

accomplishments and disasters of his period in control

 

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DOCUMENT 11

 

Who seems to have more power in the Byzantine Empire?

 

(The Patriarch of the church or the Emperor) explain.

 


 

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Using the passage, determine how frequently the

 

emperor got involved in church affairs.

 


 

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DOCUMENT 9

 

What does the document strictly forbid?______________

 

What other faith we have studied also forbids the

 

depiction of humans and animals in art?

 


 

DOCUMENT 12

 


 

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What evidence in the document suggests that a split

 

between the two sides of Christianity is coming?

 

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Under these rules would the depiction of a cross alone be

 

acceptable? Explain.

 


 

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DOCUMENT 12

 


 

DOCUMENT 10

 


 

Using evidence, what seems to happen to the Byzantine

 

Empire after the Battle of Manzikert (1071CE)?

 

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What does the document suggest about the government

 

structure/ political organization of the Byzantine state?

 

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Which group will gain more and more control of the

 

Byzantine as a result of this defeat?

 


 

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What is a theme (themata)? ________________________

 


 

What other ?empire? did this very same group also gain

 

political control of?

 


 

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_

 


 

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The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 1

 

Sozomen (d. c. 450 CE), Ecclesiastical History, II.3: (City was dedicated in 330CE)

 

Led by the divine hand, he came to Byzantium in Thrace, beyond Chalcedon in Bithynia, and here he desired to

 

build his city, and render it worthy of the name of Constantine. In obedience to the command of God, he

 

therefore enlarged the city formerly called Byzantium, and surrounded it with high walls; likewise he built

 

splendid dwelling houses; and being aware that the former population was not enough for so great a city, he

 

peopled it with men of rank and their families, whom he summoned from Rome and from other countries. He

 

imposed special taxes to cover the expenses of building and adorning the city, and of supplying the inhabitants

 

with food. He erected all the needed edifices for a great capital---a hippodrome, fountains, porticoes and other

 

beautiful adornments. He named it Constantinople and New Rome---and established it as the Roman capital

 

for all the inhabitants of the North, the South, the East, and the shores of the Mediterranean, from the cities on

 

the Danube and from Epidamnus and the Ionian Gulf to Cyrene and Libya.

 

He created another Senate which he endowed with the same honors and privileges as that of Rome, and he

 

strove to render the city of his name equal in every way to Rome in Italy; nor were his wishes in vain, for by the

 

favor of God, it became the most populous and wealthy of cities. As this city became the capital of the Empire

 

during the period of religious prosperity, it was not polluted by altars, Grecian temples, nor pagan sacrifices.

 

Constantine also honored this new city of Christ by adorning it with many and splendid houses of prayer, in

 

which the Deity vouchsafed to bless the efforts of the Emperor by giving sensible manifestations of his

 

presence.

 

DOCUMENT 2

 

Background on Procopius- Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima. Accompanying

 

the Roman general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian, he became the principal historian of the 6th century, writing the

 

Wars of Justinian, the Buildings of Justinian (both of which praised Justinian) and the celebrated Secret History (which outright

 

bashes Justinian). He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient world and came from the old aristocratic class.

 


 

Secret History Procopius -On Justinian from Chapter VII (sometime between 550-560CE)

 

*

 


 

I think this is as good a time as any to describe the personal appearance of the man. Now in physique he was neither tall nor short,

 

but of average height; not thin, but moderately plump; his face was round, and not bad looking, for he had good color, even when

 

he fasted for two days. To make a long description short, he much resembled Domitian, Vespasian's son....

 

Now such was Justinian in appearance; but his character was something I could not fully describe. For he was at once villainous and

 

amenable; as people say colloquially, a moron. He was never truthful with anyone, but always guileful in what he said and did, yet

 

easily hoodwinked by any who wanted to deceive him. His nature was an unnatural mixture of folly and wickedness. What in olden

 

times a peripatetic philosopher said was also true of him, that opposite qualities combine in a man as in the mixing of colors. I will try

 

to portray him, however, insofar as I can fathom his complexity. This Emperor, then, was deceitful, devious, false, hypocritical,

 

two-faced, cruel, skilled in dissembling his thought, never moved to tears by either joy or pain, though he could summon them

 

artfully at will when the occasion demanded, a liar always, not only offhand, but in writing, and when he swore sacred oaths to his

 

subjects in their very hearing. Then he would immediately break his agreements and pledges, like the vilest of slaves, whom indeed

 

only the fear of torture drives to confess their perjury. A faithless friend, he was a treacherous enemy, insane for murder and plunder,

 

quarrelsome and revolutionary, easily led to anything, but never willing to listen to good counsel, quick to plan mischief and carry

 

it out, but finding even the hearing of anything good distasteful to his ears.

 


 

The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 3

 

HAGIA SOPHIA (537CE)- Procopius

 

The lowest dregs of the people in Byzantium once

 

assailed the Emperor Justinian in the rebellion

 

called Nika, which I have clearly described in my

 

?History of the Wars.? To prove that it was not

 

merely against the Emperor, but no less against

 

God that they took up arms, they ventured to burn

 

the church of the Christians. (This church the

 

people of Byzantium call Sophia; a name most

 

worthy of God). God permitted them to effect this

 

crime, knowing how great the beauty of this church

 

would be when restored. Thus the church was

 

entirely reduced to ashes; but the Emperor

 

Justinian not long afterwards adorned it in such a

 

fashion, that if anyone has asked the Christians in

 

former times if they wished their church to be

 

destroyed and thus restored, showing them the

 

appearance of the church which we now see, I

 

think it probable that they would have prayed that

 

they might as soon as possible behold their church

 

destroyed, in order that it might be turned into its

 

present form. The Emperor, regardless of expense

 

of all kinds pressed on its restoration and collected

 

together all the workmen from every land.

 

Arthemius of Tralles, by far the most celebrated

 

architect, not only of his own but of all former

 

times, carried out the King?s zealous intentions,

 

organized the labors of the workmen, and

 

prepared the models of the future construction.

 

Associated with him was another architect named

 

Isidorus, a Milesian by birth, a man of intelligence

 

and worthy to carry out the plans of Emperor

 

Justinian. It is indeed, a proof of the esteem with

 

which God regarded the Emperor, that He

 

furnished him with men who would be so useful in

 

effecting his designs, and we are compelled to

 

admire the intelligence of the Emperor, in being

 

able to choose the most suitable of mankind to

 

carry out the noblest of his works.

 


 

The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 4

 

Laws of Justinian (529-534CE)

 

Besides the Hagia Sophia the other major accomplishment of the Roman?s (of Byzantine Empire) during the reign of Justinian was the

 

Corpus Juris Civilis (Justinian?s Code). Which took centuries of built up Roman law and codified/standardized it for the empire. It was

 

a massive undertaking. Below are a few of the laws which reference the Byzantine attitudes toward Jews.

 

C.J., 1.5.12 Heretics are all such as do not belong to the Catholic faith including Jews. They are not to hold any office; or follow

 

profession of law. Heavy penalties for connivance with evasion.

 

C.J., 1,5.13, Orthodox children not to be disinherited by Jewish parents.

 

C.J, 1.5.17,

 


 

Complete destruction of Samaritan synagogues ordered.

 


 

C.J, 1.3.54,

 


 

No Jew to possess Christian slaves, or slaves desiring to become Christian.

 


 

C.J., 1.10.2,

 


 

No Jew to own a Christian slave.

 


 

C.J., 1.9.2, addressed to the Jews. Sabbath not to be disturbed.

 


 

DOCUMENT 5

 

Codex Justinianus: Return of Fugitive Slaves & Coloni, c. 530CE [Xl.48.xii.]

 

To strengthen the laws binding slaves and coloni to the soil precautions were taken to prevent landlords employing

 

fugitives and to ensure their return. (*Colonus: Peasant farmer which is tied to the land they work)

 

Xl.48.xii. We ordain that slaves, or tributaries, or tenet farmers shall remain with their lords. For, when, dismayed by a

 

fear of Ioss, each landowner begins to drive away those who are unknown to him, the will to flight will not be with the

 

slaves; for no one deserts his lord knowing that there is nowhere a refuge for him as a fugitive. But either each one will

 

employ those known to be free men, or will dismiss him who feigns freedom, fearing that he will be liable to those

 

punishments which are ordained by the law. If, therefore, any known fugitive be found anywhere, his detainer shall

 

bring to our fisc twelve pounds of silver, but we decree that to him whose slave he is he shall bring another of the same

 

value in addition to that same fugitive.

 


 

DOCUMENT 6

 

Codex Justinianus: Coloni Bound to the Soil, c. 530CE [Xl.51.i]

 

*Colonus: Peasant farmer which is tied to the land they work (called serfdom in Medieval Europe)

 


 

An earlier law had attached coloni to the soil in provinces of the Empire other than Palestine, but the application of the

 

law was extended to that country by Justinian so that there was apparent uniformity in the matter of the colonate

 

throughout the Empire.

 

Xl.51.i. Since throughout other provinces which lie under the control of our serene majesty, a law has been passed by

 

the fathers which detains the coloni by a certain law of all time, so that they are not allowed to depart from those

 

places, the fruits of which support them, nor to desert those lands which they once took up for cultivation, and since this

 

is not allowed to the land-holders in Palestine, we ordain, that even throughout Palestine no colonus shall altogether of

 

his own right boast himself a freeman or wanderer, but according to the example of other provinces he shall be attached

 

to the lord of the land so that he may not be able to depart without suffering penalties; moreover, we further decree

 

that full authority of recalling him may be given to the lord of the estate

 


 

The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 7

 

From History of the Wars, I- Procopius (Nika Rebellion 532CE)

 

At this time [January 1, 532] an insurrection broke out unexpectedly in Byzantium among the populace, and,

 

contrary to expectation, it proved to be a very serious affair, and ended in great harm to the people and to the senate,

 

as the following account will show.

 

In every city the population has been divided for a long time past into the Blue and the Green factions; but

 

within comparatively recent times it has come about that, for the sake of these names and the seats which the rival

 

factions occupy in watching the games, they spend their money and abandon their bodies to the most cruel tortures,

 

and even do not think it unworthy to die a most shameful death. And they fight against their opponents knowing not for

 

what end they imperil themselves, but knowing well that, even if they overcome their enemy the fight, the conclusion of

 

the matter for them will be to be carried off straight away to the prison, and finally, after suffering extreme torture, to

 

be destroyed. (Riot broke out at Chariot races against blues and greens and some are being arrested)

 

At this time the officers of the city administration in Byzantium were leading away to death some of the rioters.

 

But the members of the two factions conspiring together and declaring a truce with each other, seized the prisoners and

 

then straightway entered the prison and released all those who were in confinement there. . . . Fire was applied to the

 

city as if it had fallen under the hand of an enemy. . . . The emperor and his consort, with a few members of the senate

 

shut themselves up in the palace and remained quietly there. Now the watch-word which the populace passed to one

 

another was Nika [i.e., "Conquer"].

 

The emperor and his court were deliberating as to whether it would be better for them if they remained or if

 

they took to flight in the ships. And many opinions were expressed favoring either course. And the Empress Theodora

 

also spoke to the following effect: "My opinion then is that the present time, above all others, is inopportune for flight,

 

even though it brings safety. . . . For one who has been an emperor it is unendurable to be a fugitive. May I never be

 

separated from this purple, and may I not live that day on which those who meet me shall not address me as mistress. If,

 

now, it is your wish to save yourself, O Emperor, there is no difficulty. For we have much money, and there is the sea,

 

here the boats. However consider whether it will not come about after you have been saved that you would gladly

 

exchange that safety for death. For as for myself, I approve a certain ancient saying that royalty is a good burial-shroud."

 

When the queen had spoken thus, all were filled with boldness, and, turning their thoughts towards resistance, they

 

began to consider how they might be able to defend themselves if any hostile force should come against them. . . .All

 

the hopes of the emperor were centered upon Belisarius and Mundus, of whom the former, Belisarius, had recently

 

returned from the Persian war bringing with him a following which was both powerful and imposing, and in particular he

 

had a great number of spearmen and guards who had received their training in battles and the perils of warfare. . .

 

(Belisarius leads soldiers against rioters). . There perished among the populace on that day more than thirty

 

thousand. . . . The soldiers killed both [Hypatius and Pompeius] on the following day and threw bodies into the sea. . . .

 

This was the end of the insurrection in Byzantium.

 


 

DOCUMENT 8

 

History of the Wars, II.xxii-xxxiii: (542 CE)

 

DURING these times there was a pestilence, by which the whole human race came near to being annihilated.

 

Now in the case of all other scourges sent from heaven some explanation of a cause might be given by daring

 

men, such as the many theories propounded by those who are clever in these matters; for they love to

 

conjure up causes which are absolutely incomprehensible to man, and to fabricate outlandish theories of

 

natural philosophy knowing well that they are saying nothing sound but considering it sufficient for them, if

 

they completely deceive by their argument some of those whom they meet and persuade them to their view.

 

But for this calamity it is quite impossible either to express in words or to conceive in thought any explanation,

 

except indeed to refer it to God. For it did not come in a part of the world nor upon certain men, nor did it

 

confine itself to any season of the year, so that from such circumstances it might be possible to find subtle

 

explanations of a cause, but it embraced the entire world, and blighted the lives of all men, though differing

 

from one another in the most marked degree, respecting neither sex nor age

 


 

The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 9

 

Iconoclastic Council of Constantinople, 754 *Iconoclasm is greek for ?Image Breaking?

 

(it should be noted that Pope Gregory III and the Roman Catholic church supported the use of Icons which created tension between

 

the Eastern and Western parts of the Christian church but was NOT the ultimate cause of the Schism between the two)

 


 

Satan misguided men, so that they worshipped the creature instead of the Creator. The Mosaic law and the prophets

 

cooperated to undo this ruin; but in order to save mankind thoroughly, God sent his own Son, who turned us away from

 

error and the worshipping of idols, and taught us the worshipping of God in spirit and in truth. As messengers of his

 

saving doctrine, he left us his Apostles and disciples, and these adorned the Church, his Bride, with his glorious

 

doctrines. This ornament of the Church the holy Fathers and the six Ecumenical Councils have preserved inviolate. But

 

the before-mentioned demi-urgos of wickedness could not endure the sight of this adornment, and gradually brought

 

back idolatry under the appearance of Christianity. As then Christ armed his Apostles against the ancient idolatry with

 

the power of the Holy Spirit, and sent them out into all the world, so has he awakened against the new idolatry his

 

servants our faithful Emperors, and endowed them with the same wisdom of the Holy Spirit. Impelled by the Holy Spirit

 

they could no longer be witnesses of the Church being laid waste by the deception of demons, and summoned the

 

sanctified assembly of the God-beloved bishops, that they might institute at a synod a scriptural examination into the

 

deceitful colouring of the pictures ( omoiwmatwn ) which draws down the spirit of man from the lofty adoration (

 

latreias ) of God to the low and material adoration ( latreian ) of the creature, and that they, under divine guidance,

 

might express their view on the subject.

 


 

DOCUMENT 10

 

THEOPHANES CONTINUATUS -The Powerful and the Poor

 

The Reign of Constantine VII (Reigned 913-959)

 

10. Since the emperor's ears were ringing with the injustices and hardships inflicted on the pitiful and wretched poor

 

(penetes) by the military governors (strategoi), the chief notaries [in charge of provisioning the armed forces]

 

(protonotarioi), the soldiers (stratiotes) and cavalry during his father-in-law Romanos' reign, he sent devout and fair men

 

to ease the great burdens on the wretched poor (ptochoi), which had been levied regardless of circumstance. To the

 

Anatolikon [theme, or province] he sent the magistros Romanos Saronites, to the Opsikion the magistros Romanos

 

Mousele, to the Thrakesion the patrikios Photios, and to the Armeniakon Leo Agelastos. In due course [good men were

 

sent to] the remaining provinces (themata). The men, on the emperor's instruction, gave the poor a small return (mikran

 

anakochen).(1)

 

Note: This seems to indicate a cash sum returned to the poor, but might simply mean a break from taxation.]

 


 

DOCUMENT 11

 

On Appeals beyond Constantinople, and to the Emperor

 

"Concerning the Privileges of the Patriarchs", he remarked that "the service of the emperors includes the enlightening

 

and strengthening of both the soul and the body; the dignity of the patriarchs is limited to the benefit of souls and to

 

that only."

 

?But the appeal is not to be submitted to the ears of the emperor on account of this annoyance. If then

 

someone abandons going to a higher synod, and disputes the proper form of pleas of justification in the rules of appeal,

 

and troubles the emperor about this, not only shall he derive no benefit by as one not being worthy of pardon, but all

 

doors of justification will be fastened against him and he will have no hope of restoration.?

 


 

The Byzantine Empire through Primary Sources

 

DOCUMENT 12

 

On Constantinople replacing Old Rome

 

Balsamon, RP3, 146-150

 

Because it is frequently brought up - when it is necessary to submit the decision of Constantinople to appeal - it

 

seemed necessary to me to add my opinion of this, and to give my reasons...the 4th canon of the Council of

 

Sardica directs that the one who has been condemned has as security two appeals, and that the final judgement

 

be by the pope of Rome...I say that since the decree of St. Constantine, the one given to St. Sylvester, and one

 

which is covered by us in the interpretation of Chap. 1 of Title VIII of the present work, directs that the pope

 

have all the royal powers, and that the Second Ecumenical Council and the Fourth gave the patriarch of

 

Co...

 







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