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Capillary Exchange


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Module: Distribution


Activity: Animations


Title: Capillary Exchange





1. Describe the relative movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other wastes,


between capillaries and living cells.


Oxygen and nutrients move from the blood to the cells. Carbon dioxide and other


wastes move from the cells to the blood


Mechanisms of Capillary Exchange


2. a. Describe the importance of diffusion as a method of capillary exchange.


This mechanism of exchange is the most important and allows O2, CO2, and


steroid hormones to travel down concentration gradient and pass through the


plasma membrane; Glucose and electrolytes pass through channels, pores or


clefts through this process.


b. Describe movement of small or lipid soluble molecules across the endothelial cell membrane.



c. Describe movement of medium-sized, or lipid insoluble soluble substances across the endothelial


cell membranes.



3. Describe transcytosis. Include endocytosis and exocytosis in your explanation.



4. a. What does bulk flow transport?


Bulk flow is a movement of molecules from an area of high pressure to an area of low


pressure. It transports fluids or electrolytes between cells through openings, or pores,


between the cells.


b. How do pressure gradients affect bulk flow?



c. Describe the function of capillary fenestrations.



Bulk Flow



5. Describe the correlation between bulk flow and the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluids.



6. Explain each of the following factors that determine the net direction of capillary




Blood Hydrostatic Pressure (BHP) -



Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP) -



Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure (IFOP) ?



Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (IFHP) -



7. Define Net Filtration Pressure (NFP).



8. a. Describe filtration and reabsorption pressures at each of the following capillary




Arterial End Venous End b. How much of the water that is filtered out of the arterial end of the capillary is reabsorbed at the


venous end?



9. What happens to the interstitial fluid not reabsorbed into the venous capillaries?



10. a. Define edema.


b. Name four major causes of edema.



Blood Velocity


11. a. Describe the relationship between blood velocity and blood vessel cross-sectional area.



b. Why is slow blood velocity important in the capillaries?



12. Describe blood velocity patterns as blood moves away from, and then back toward, the heart.




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