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Current Ocean Studies 6 Can somebody please help with these
Current Ocean Studies 6
Can somebody please help with these Oceanography questions? They're multiple choice and fairly easy but I'm incredibly stressed with mid terms so I could use the help. Due date is tomorrow at 1:30 PM.Current Ocean Studies
1.) Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards map at: http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policy- maps/renewable-energy-standards. The map shows that 37 states including coastal states __(Texas and North Carolina) / (Florida and Alabama)___
COS 6 - 1 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE:
1. As directed by your instructor, complete this activity. Also print the Weekly Ocean News
or Supplemental files as designated. (Check for additional News updates during the
2. Reference: Chapter 6 in the Ocean Studies textbook. Complete the Investigations in the
Ocean Studies Investigations Manual as directed by your instructor.
The ways most countries, including the U.S., produce and consume energy are not
sustainable and place the environment in great peril through human-induced climate change.
The increasing concentration of heat-trapping atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the
burning of fossil fuels is the primary driver of global warming. Consequently, the foremost
goal directed towards reducing global warming is to lower the rate of CO2 emissions into the
air. Energy policy can be expected to place greater emphasis on clean energy through heavy
investments in alternative and renewable energy. Clean energy includes increased energy
efficiency and clean energy supply options such as highly efficient combined heat and power
systems and renewable energy sources.
The United States and many other countries that attended the December 2009 United Nations
Climate Change Conference (called COP15) held in Copenhagen, Denmark signed the
Copenhagen Accord. They committed themselves to hold the increase in global average
temperature below 2 C degrees (3.6 Fº) and to take action to meet this objective consistent
with science and equity. [The Accord can be viewed at
35. Click on language of your choice.] The U.S. set a target of a 17% reduction in
greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (based on 2000 emissions levels), subject to approval by
Congress. No action was taken legislatively, largely due to partisan politics and resistance
from fossil fuel interests. However, the Obama Administration issued Executive Orders and
other executive steps directed towards reducing emissions and undertaking actions to
enhance climate preparedness and resilience.
The United Nations has convened COPs on nearly an annual schedule to build consensus for
a global treaty on climate change. Of seminal importance was COP21, the 2015 United
Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12
December 2015. Recognizing ?that climate change is a common concern of humankind?, a
total of 195 countries negotiated and signed a historically significant agreement to address
climate change. COS 6 - 2 Among unanimously accepted fundamental understandings stated in the Paris Agreement
was recognition that
? ? ?climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human
societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation by all
countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international
response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas
?deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order to achieve the ultimate
objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency in addressing
climate change?. Built on the assessments of the IPCC and the findings of other science-based investigations
of Earth?s climate system, the Paris Agreement is intended to steer all countries away from
employing fossil fuels as the primary energy sources for economic sustainability and growth,
and to show that governments around the world take climate change seriously. The Paris
Agreement can be read at http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf. Its
latest status of ratification is available at http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php. Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources:
Regardless of U.S. legislative action or inaction at the national and international levels
concerning energy policy, there is increasing recognition that all possible sources of energy
need to be investigated and exploited to move towards a society that is based on a sustainable
energy foundation without harm to the environment. So far in the U.S., numerous states and
the District of Columbia have established renewable and alternative energy portfolio
standards or goals. These specify that by some target date, mostly set between 2010 and
2025, electric utilities in the respective states are to generate a certain amount of their
electricity from renewable or alternative energy sources (including solar, wind, flowing
water, biomass, tides, and waves).
1. Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and
Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy
Portfolio Standards map at: http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policymaps/renewable-energy-standards. The map shows that 37 states including coastal states
_______, have renewable and/or alternative energy portfolio standards. Check to see if
your home state (or D.C.) has such standards.
[ ] Texas and North Carolina
[ ] Florida and Alabama
The potential of renewable and alternative energy sources varies considerably from place to
place. For coastal states, capturing ocean power has significant potential, especially in
certain locations. Substantial effort has gone into research and pilot projects using ocean
tides and waves to generate electricity, and is reported elsewhere. However, tapping ocean
currents for electrical generation is a viable alternative option in some locations because
current flow direction and speed are remarkably constant throughout the day, and often over COS 6 - 3 the year. Florida is the state with the greatest potential for drawing energy from ocean
currents. The northward flowing Florida Current (the beginning of the Gulf Stream) is
To investigate the Florida Current component of the Gulf Stream, go to:
may take up to a minute or more until the map is displayed, so be patient.] For an alternate
path to the same map: Go to the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal website. Under the Physical
& Chemical section, click on ?NOAA Global Ocean Nowcasts/Forecasts.? An animated
world map will appear showing nowcast and forecast temperatures at the surface (0 m depth)
out one week into the future. Next, in the upper right portion of the table under the title
Global RTOFS Z-Level Nowcasts/Forecasts, click on ?Current.? After the current global
map appears, click on the down arrow (?) in the drop box in the left part of the table, and
select and click on ?Gulf Stream.?
2. You are viewing the nowcast and predicted surface ocean currents for the coming week.
The map displays arrows that indicate the direction of flow, and their lengths are
proportional to speed of the moving water. The color coding depicts water speed.
Comparison shows that the ________ arrows representing lowest current speeds are in
regions of purplish red fuchsia color.
[ ] shortest
[ ] longest
3. The animation shows that a ?river? of relatively high-speed seawater constituting the
ocean current passes by in closest proximity to ________ coast.
[ ] North Carolina?s
[ ] Florida?s southeastern
[ ] Florida?s southwestern
4. Figure 1 displays the surface currents in the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico
on 4 September 2016. Speed is reported in m/s (1 m/s = 3.6 km/hr = 2.24 mi./hr =
1.94 kt). The maximum (max) current speed in the map area is indicated above the map,
which was reported on this date to be ________ m/s. This is equal to 9.18 km/hr, 5.71
mi./hr, or 4.95 kt.
[ ] 0.24
[ ] 1.94
[ ] 2.55
5. The surface maximum current speed reported in Figure 1 is color-coded on the map as
________. COS 6 - 4 light blue
red Figure 1. Surface (0 m depth) Ocean Currents, 4 September 2016, in m/s.
6. Generating electricity by water currents is governed by the same laws of physics as those
governing the production of electricity from wind power. [Power is the rate at which
work is done or energy is transferred.] Basically, a moving fluid (gaseous air or liquid
water) does the work of generating electricity by applying a force that causes turbine
blades to move. However, there are major differences in the speeds of air and water
required to produce equivalent power because the two fluids have such different
densities. Ocean water density is 1027 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and air density
is 1.2 kg/m3 at sea level, making water about ________ times denser than air at sea level.
[ ] 8.6
[ ] 86
[ ] 860 COS 6 - 5 7. Under otherwise similar conditions (including equal cross-sectional areas through which
the flows pass), water has far more potential for generating electricity than air because of
its greater density. For example, a 5 km/hr (3.1 mi/hr or 1.4 m/s) ocean current could
theoretically generate power equivalent to a 47.5 km/hr (29.5 mi/hr or 13.3 m/s) sea-level
wind. Additionally, from an engineering viewpoint, because the ocean current?s speed
and direction are ________ variable than those of wind, the actual ocean-current
generation of power is likely to be substantially greater.
[ ] more
[ ] less
The Florida Current, being close to land, is among the best ocean candidates for generating
electricity. At times it flows as fast as 7.2 km/hr (4.5 mi/hr or 2.0 m/s) within a few miles
offshore of Miami, FL. This is equivalent to a 68.4 km/hr (42.8 mi/hr) sea-level wind.
Studies indicate that about one kilowatt of power per square meter could be extracted from
near-surface flow in the Florida Current. It has been estimated that capturing three
thousandths (0.003) of the energy from the current could meet Florida?s electrical energy
There are numerous technical challenges and potential environmental impacts to the
exploitation of ocean currents to generate electrical energy. Ocean current electrical turbines
must be anchored solidly to the ocean floor to withstand huge horizontal forces. Being in
seawater, corrosion (chemical or electrochemical deterioration) is of special concern, and
marine growth buildup on turbine blades (biofouling) can drastically reduce efficiency.
Cavitation (bubble formation) on the blades creates noise, changes blade shape by eroding
metals, generates vibrations, and reduces blade efficiency. Environmental concerns include
the disruption of nesting areas and the possibility of rotating blades striking sea life. During
construction, activities such as pile driving could have negative noise impacts on fish,
mammals, and sea turtles. Costs of development, construction, maintenance and eventual
decommissioning, along with competition from other energy sources and governmental
incentives, can determine if and when ocean current energy will become a significant
alternate energy source.
8. According to the paragraph above, beyond the economic and environmental challenges
that need to be considered, technical challenges include ________. avoidance of cavitation
prevention of marine growth buildup
all of these Actions Being Taken: There is substantial interest in Florida, for good reason as seen in
Figure 1, to investigate and demonstrate the exploitation of ocean currents as a source of
electricity. Florida Atlantic University?s Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy COS 6 - 6 Center (SNMREC) has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance the
science and technology of recovering energy from the oceans? renewable resources, with
special emphasis on those resources available to the southeastern U.S.
For general information about the potential of the vast source of clean, reliable and
renewable energy of the ocean?s moving water and temperature and density gradients that
can be captured and converted to electricity, the Florida state government?s My Florida
Home Energy describes Marine Hydrokinetic ?Blue? Energy. Go to
9. According to the Quick Facts listed at the website, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy
resources are those associated with moving water. The causes of such motion include
all of these Figure 2 shows two possible hydrokinetic energy conversion turbines. Figure 2. Visualizations of Two Possible Turbine and Anchor Technologies.
[Department of Interior BOEM]
In addition to research and development of technologies capable of generating renewable
power by ocean current energy conversion, SNMREC is investigating ocean thermal energy
To Find Out More: The U.S. Department of the Interior?s Bureau of Ocean Energy
Management (http://www.boem.gov/Homepage/BOEM-Homepage.aspx) is the lead Federal
Agency dealing with Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Alternative Energy. For details, go to:
http://www.boem.gov/Offshore-Renewable-Energy-Guide/. There, you will find
introductions to all alternative ocean energy resources.
Extra: [Notice that on the Global RTOFS (Real Time Ocean Forecast System) Z-Level
Nowcasts/Forecasts webpage you visited earlier in this Current Ocean Studies COS 6 - 7 [http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/global/nc/?-global-curr-000-large-rundate=latest] you can access
real time and archived nowcast and forecast data dealing with various measures including
temperature, salinity, currents at different depths and regions of the world ocean.]
If directed by your instructor, place the answers to Investigations 6A and 6B on the
Investigations Answer Forms and this Current Ocean Studies on the Current Ocean
Studies Answer Form linked from the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal.
©Copyright 2016, American Meteorological Society
This question was answered on: Feb 21, 2020
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