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Current Ocean Studies 6

Can somebody please help with these Oceanography questions? They're multiple choice and fairly easy but I'm incredibly stressed with mid terms so I could use the help. Due date is tomorrow at 1:30 PM. 

Current Ocean Studies

1.) Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards map at: http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policy- maps/renewable-energy-standards. The map shows that 37 states including coastal states __(Texas and North Carolina) / (Florida and Alabama)___
COS 6 - 1 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE:

 

OCEAN CURRENTS

 

1. As directed by your instructor, complete this activity. Also print the Weekly Ocean News

 

or Supplemental files as designated. (Check for additional News updates during the

 

week.)

 

2. Reference: Chapter 6 in the Ocean Studies textbook. Complete the Investigations in the

 

Ocean Studies Investigations Manual as directed by your instructor.

 

________________________________________________________________________ Introduction:

 

The ways most countries, including the U.S., produce and consume energy are not

 

sustainable and place the environment in great peril through human-induced climate change.

 

The increasing concentration of heat-trapping atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the

 

burning of fossil fuels is the primary driver of global warming. Consequently, the foremost

 

goal directed towards reducing global warming is to lower the rate of CO2 emissions into the

 

air. Energy policy can be expected to place greater emphasis on clean energy through heavy

 

investments in alternative and renewable energy. Clean energy includes increased energy

 

efficiency and clean energy supply options such as highly efficient combined heat and power

 

systems and renewable energy sources.

 

The United States and many other countries that attended the December 2009 United Nations

 

Climate Change Conference (called COP15) held in Copenhagen, Denmark signed the

 

Copenhagen Accord. They committed themselves to hold the increase in global average

 

temperature below 2 C degrees (3.6 Fº) and to take action to meet this objective consistent

 

with science and equity. [The Accord can be viewed at

 

http://unfccc.int/documentation/documents/advanced_search/items/6911.php?priref=6000057

 

35. Click on language of your choice.] The U.S. set a target of a 17% reduction in

 

greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (based on 2000 emissions levels), subject to approval by

 

Congress. No action was taken legislatively, largely due to partisan politics and resistance

 

from fossil fuel interests. However, the Obama Administration issued Executive Orders and

 

other executive steps directed towards reducing emissions and undertaking actions to

 

enhance climate preparedness and resilience.

 

The United Nations has convened COPs on nearly an annual schedule to build consensus for

 

a global treaty on climate change. Of seminal importance was COP21, the 2015 United

 

Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12

 

December 2015. Recognizing ?that climate change is a common concern of humankind?, a

 

total of 195 countries negotiated and signed a historically significant agreement to address

 

climate change. COS 6 - 2 Among unanimously accepted fundamental understandings stated in the Paris Agreement

 

was recognition that

 

? ? ?climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human

 

societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation by all

 

countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international

 

response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas

 

emissions,? and,

 

?deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order to achieve the ultimate

 

objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency in addressing

 

climate change?. Built on the assessments of the IPCC and the findings of other science-based investigations

 

of Earth?s climate system, the Paris Agreement is intended to steer all countries away from

 

employing fossil fuels as the primary energy sources for economic sustainability and growth,

 

and to show that governments around the world take climate change seriously. The Paris

 

Agreement can be read at http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf. Its

 

latest status of ratification is available at http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php. Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources:

 

Regardless of U.S. legislative action or inaction at the national and international levels

 

concerning energy policy, there is increasing recognition that all possible sources of energy

 

need to be investigated and exploited to move towards a society that is based on a sustainable

 

energy foundation without harm to the environment. So far in the U.S., numerous states and

 

the District of Columbia have established renewable and alternative energy portfolio

 

standards or goals. These specify that by some target date, mostly set between 2010 and

 

2025, electric utilities in the respective states are to generate a certain amount of their

 

electricity from renewable or alternative energy sources (including solar, wind, flowing

 

water, biomass, tides, and waves).

 

1. Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and

 

Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy

 

Portfolio Standards map at: http://www.c2es.org/us-states-regions/policymaps/renewable-energy-standards. The map shows that 37 states including coastal states

 

_______, have renewable and/or alternative energy portfolio standards. Check to see if

 

your home state (or D.C.) has such standards.

 

[ ] Texas and North Carolina

 

[ ] Florida and Alabama

 

The potential of renewable and alternative energy sources varies considerably from place to

 

place. For coastal states, capturing ocean power has significant potential, especially in

 

certain locations. Substantial effort has gone into research and pilot projects using ocean

 

tides and waves to generate electricity, and is reported elsewhere. However, tapping ocean

 

currents for electrical generation is a viable alternative option in some locations because

 

current flow direction and speed are remarkably constant throughout the day, and often over COS 6 - 3 the year. Florida is the state with the greatest potential for drawing energy from ocean

 

currents. The northward flowing Florida Current (the beginning of the Gulf Stream) is

 

especially promising.

 

To investigate the Florida Current component of the Gulf Stream, go to:

 

http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/global/nc/?-gulfstream-curr-000-large-rundate=latest. [Loading

 

may take up to a minute or more until the map is displayed, so be patient.] For an alternate

 

path to the same map: Go to the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal website. Under the Physical

 

& Chemical section, click on ?NOAA Global Ocean Nowcasts/Forecasts.? An animated

 

world map will appear showing nowcast and forecast temperatures at the surface (0 m depth)

 

out one week into the future. Next, in the upper right portion of the table under the title

 

Global RTOFS Z-Level Nowcasts/Forecasts, click on ?Current.? After the current global

 

map appears, click on the down arrow (?) in the drop box in the left part of the table, and

 

select and click on ?Gulf Stream.?

 

2. You are viewing the nowcast and predicted surface ocean currents for the coming week.

 

The map displays arrows that indicate the direction of flow, and their lengths are

 

proportional to speed of the moving water. The color coding depicts water speed.

 

Comparison shows that the ________ arrows representing lowest current speeds are in

 

regions of purplish red fuchsia color.

 

[ ] shortest

 

[ ] longest

 

3. The animation shows that a ?river? of relatively high-speed seawater constituting the

 

ocean current passes by in closest proximity to ________ coast.

 

[ ] North Carolina?s

 

[ ] Florida?s southeastern

 

[ ] Florida?s southwestern

 

4. Figure 1 displays the surface currents in the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

 

on 4 September 2016. Speed is reported in m/s (1 m/s = 3.6 km/hr = 2.24 mi./hr =

 

1.94 kt). The maximum (max) current speed in the map area is indicated above the map,

 

which was reported on this date to be ________ m/s. This is equal to 9.18 km/hr, 5.71

 

mi./hr, or 4.95 kt.

 

[ ] 0.24

 

[ ] 1.94

 

[ ] 2.55

 

5. The surface maximum current speed reported in Figure 1 is color-coded on the map as

 

________. COS 6 - 4 light blue

 

greenish yellow

 

orange

 

red Figure 1. Surface (0 m depth) Ocean Currents, 4 September 2016, in m/s.

 

6. Generating electricity by water currents is governed by the same laws of physics as those

 

governing the production of electricity from wind power. [Power is the rate at which

 

work is done or energy is transferred.] Basically, a moving fluid (gaseous air or liquid

 

water) does the work of generating electricity by applying a force that causes turbine

 

blades to move. However, there are major differences in the speeds of air and water

 

required to produce equivalent power because the two fluids have such different

 

densities. Ocean water density is 1027 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and air density

 

is 1.2 kg/m3 at sea level, making water about ________ times denser than air at sea level.

 

[ ] 8.6

 

[ ] 86

 

[ ] 860 COS 6 - 5 7. Under otherwise similar conditions (including equal cross-sectional areas through which

 

the flows pass), water has far more potential for generating electricity than air because of

 

its greater density. For example, a 5 km/hr (3.1 mi/hr or 1.4 m/s) ocean current could

 

theoretically generate power equivalent to a 47.5 km/hr (29.5 mi/hr or 13.3 m/s) sea-level

 

wind. Additionally, from an engineering viewpoint, because the ocean current?s speed

 

and direction are ________ variable than those of wind, the actual ocean-current

 

generation of power is likely to be substantially greater.

 

[ ] more

 

[ ] less

 

The Florida Current, being close to land, is among the best ocean candidates for generating

 

electricity. At times it flows as fast as 7.2 km/hr (4.5 mi/hr or 2.0 m/s) within a few miles

 

offshore of Miami, FL. This is equivalent to a 68.4 km/hr (42.8 mi/hr) sea-level wind.

 

Studies indicate that about one kilowatt of power per square meter could be extracted from

 

near-surface flow in the Florida Current. It has been estimated that capturing three

 

thousandths (0.003) of the energy from the current could meet Florida?s electrical energy

 

needs. Challenges:

 

There are numerous technical challenges and potential environmental impacts to the

 

exploitation of ocean currents to generate electrical energy. Ocean current electrical turbines

 

must be anchored solidly to the ocean floor to withstand huge horizontal forces. Being in

 

seawater, corrosion (chemical or electrochemical deterioration) is of special concern, and

 

marine growth buildup on turbine blades (biofouling) can drastically reduce efficiency.

 

Cavitation (bubble formation) on the blades creates noise, changes blade shape by eroding

 

metals, generates vibrations, and reduces blade efficiency. Environmental concerns include

 

the disruption of nesting areas and the possibility of rotating blades striking sea life. During

 

construction, activities such as pile driving could have negative noise impacts on fish,

 

mammals, and sea turtles. Costs of development, construction, maintenance and eventual

 

decommissioning, along with competition from other energy sources and governmental

 

incentives, can determine if and when ocean current energy will become a significant

 

alternate energy source.

 

8. According to the paragraph above, beyond the economic and environmental challenges

 

that need to be considered, technical challenges include ________. avoidance of cavitation

 

corrosion resistance

 

prevention of marine growth buildup

 

all of these Actions Being Taken: There is substantial interest in Florida, for good reason as seen in

 

Figure 1, to investigate and demonstrate the exploitation of ocean currents as a source of

 

electricity. Florida Atlantic University?s Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy COS 6 - 6 Center (SNMREC) has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance the

 

science and technology of recovering energy from the oceans? renewable resources, with

 

special emphasis on those resources available to the southeastern U.S.

 

For general information about the potential of the vast source of clean, reliable and

 

renewable energy of the ocean?s moving water and temperature and density gradients that

 

can be captured and converted to electricity, the Florida state government?s My Florida

 

Home Energy describes Marine Hydrokinetic ?Blue? Energy. Go to

 

http://www.myfloridahomeenergy.com/help/library/energy-services/marine-energy/.

 

9. According to the Quick Facts listed at the website, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy

 

resources are those associated with moving water. The causes of such motion include

 

________. currents

 

ocean waves

 

tides

 

all of these Figure 2 shows two possible hydrokinetic energy conversion turbines. Figure 2. Visualizations of Two Possible Turbine and Anchor Technologies.

 

[Department of Interior BOEM]

 

In addition to research and development of technologies capable of generating renewable

 

power by ocean current energy conversion, SNMREC is investigating ocean thermal energy

 

conversion (OTEC).

 

To Find Out More: The U.S. Department of the Interior?s Bureau of Ocean Energy

 

Management (http://www.boem.gov/Homepage/BOEM-Homepage.aspx) is the lead Federal

 

Agency dealing with Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Alternative Energy. For details, go to:

 

http://www.boem.gov/Offshore-Renewable-Energy-Guide/. There, you will find

 

introductions to all alternative ocean energy resources.

 

Extra: [Notice that on the Global RTOFS (Real Time Ocean Forecast System) Z-Level

 

Nowcasts/Forecasts webpage you visited earlier in this Current Ocean Studies COS 6 - 7 [http://polar.ncep.noaa.gov/global/nc/?-global-curr-000-large-rundate=latest] you can access

 

real time and archived nowcast and forecast data dealing with various measures including

 

temperature, salinity, currents at different depths and regions of the world ocean.]

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

If directed by your instructor, place the answers to Investigations 6A and 6B on the

 

Investigations Answer Forms and this Current Ocean Studies on the Current Ocean

 

Studies Answer Form linked from the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal.

 

©Copyright 2016, American Meteorological Society

 







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