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Current Ocean Studies 6 Can somebody please help with these

Current Ocean Studies 6

Can somebody please help with these Oceanography questions? They're multiple choice and fairly easy but I'm incredibly stressed with mid terms so I could use the help. Due date is tomorrow at 1:30 PM. 

Current Ocean Studies

1.) Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards map at: maps/renewable-energy-standards. The map shows that 37 states including coastal states __(Texas and North Carolina) / (Florida and Alabama)___




1. As directed by your instructor, complete this activity. Also print the Weekly Ocean News


or Supplemental files as designated. (Check for additional News updates during the




2. Reference: Chapter 6 in the Ocean Studies textbook. Complete the Investigations in the


Ocean Studies Investigations Manual as directed by your instructor.


________________________________________________________________________ Introduction:


The ways most countries, including the U.S., produce and consume energy are not


sustainable and place the environment in great peril through human-induced climate change.


The increasing concentration of heat-trapping atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the


burning of fossil fuels is the primary driver of global warming. Consequently, the foremost


goal directed towards reducing global warming is to lower the rate of CO2 emissions into the


air. Energy policy can be expected to place greater emphasis on clean energy through heavy


investments in alternative and renewable energy. Clean energy includes increased energy


efficiency and clean energy supply options such as highly efficient combined heat and power


systems and renewable energy sources.


The United States and many other countries that attended the December 2009 United Nations


Climate Change Conference (called COP15) held in Copenhagen, Denmark signed the


Copenhagen Accord. They committed themselves to hold the increase in global average


temperature below 2 C degrees (3.6 Fº) and to take action to meet this objective consistent


with science and equity. [The Accord can be viewed at


35. Click on language of your choice.] The U.S. set a target of a 17% reduction in


greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (based on 2000 emissions levels), subject to approval by


Congress. No action was taken legislatively, largely due to partisan politics and resistance


from fossil fuel interests. However, the Obama Administration issued Executive Orders and


other executive steps directed towards reducing emissions and undertaking actions to


enhance climate preparedness and resilience.


The United Nations has convened COPs on nearly an annual schedule to build consensus for


a global treaty on climate change. Of seminal importance was COP21, the 2015 United


Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12


December 2015. Recognizing ?that climate change is a common concern of humankind?, a


total of 195 countries negotiated and signed a historically significant agreement to address


climate change. COS 6 - 2 Among unanimously accepted fundamental understandings stated in the Paris Agreement


was recognition that


? ? ?climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human


societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation by all


countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international


response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas


emissions,? and,


?deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order to achieve the ultimate


objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency in addressing


climate change?. Built on the assessments of the IPCC and the findings of other science-based investigations


of Earth?s climate system, the Paris Agreement is intended to steer all countries away from


employing fossil fuels as the primary energy sources for economic sustainability and growth,


and to show that governments around the world take climate change seriously. The Paris


Agreement can be read at Its


latest status of ratification is available at Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources:


Regardless of U.S. legislative action or inaction at the national and international levels


concerning energy policy, there is increasing recognition that all possible sources of energy


need to be investigated and exploited to move towards a society that is based on a sustainable


energy foundation without harm to the environment. So far in the U.S., numerous states and


the District of Columbia have established renewable and alternative energy portfolio


standards or goals. These specify that by some target date, mostly set between 2010 and


2025, electric utilities in the respective states are to generate a certain amount of their


electricity from renewable or alternative energy sources (including solar, wind, flowing


water, biomass, tides, and waves).


1. Evidence of the growing consensus for change is provided by the Center for Climate and


Energy Solutions (C2ES). Go to the C2ES 2015 Renewable & Alternative Energy


Portfolio Standards map at: The map shows that 37 states including coastal states


_______, have renewable and/or alternative energy portfolio standards. Check to see if


your home state (or D.C.) has such standards.


[ ] Texas and North Carolina


[ ] Florida and Alabama


The potential of renewable and alternative energy sources varies considerably from place to


place. For coastal states, capturing ocean power has significant potential, especially in


certain locations. Substantial effort has gone into research and pilot projects using ocean


tides and waves to generate electricity, and is reported elsewhere. However, tapping ocean


currents for electrical generation is a viable alternative option in some locations because


current flow direction and speed are remarkably constant throughout the day, and often over COS 6 - 3 the year. Florida is the state with the greatest potential for drawing energy from ocean


currents. The northward flowing Florida Current (the beginning of the Gulf Stream) is


especially promising.


To investigate the Florida Current component of the Gulf Stream, go to: [Loading


may take up to a minute or more until the map is displayed, so be patient.] For an alternate


path to the same map: Go to the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal website. Under the Physical


& Chemical section, click on ?NOAA Global Ocean Nowcasts/Forecasts.? An animated


world map will appear showing nowcast and forecast temperatures at the surface (0 m depth)


out one week into the future. Next, in the upper right portion of the table under the title


Global RTOFS Z-Level Nowcasts/Forecasts, click on ?Current.? After the current global


map appears, click on the down arrow (?) in the drop box in the left part of the table, and


select and click on ?Gulf Stream.?


2. You are viewing the nowcast and predicted surface ocean currents for the coming week.


The map displays arrows that indicate the direction of flow, and their lengths are


proportional to speed of the moving water. The color coding depicts water speed.


Comparison shows that the ________ arrows representing lowest current speeds are in


regions of purplish red fuchsia color.


[ ] shortest


[ ] longest


3. The animation shows that a ?river? of relatively high-speed seawater constituting the


ocean current passes by in closest proximity to ________ coast.


[ ] North Carolina?s


[ ] Florida?s southeastern


[ ] Florida?s southwestern


4. Figure 1 displays the surface currents in the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico


on 4 September 2016. Speed is reported in m/s (1 m/s = 3.6 km/hr = 2.24 mi./hr =


1.94 kt). The maximum (max) current speed in the map area is indicated above the map,


which was reported on this date to be ________ m/s. This is equal to 9.18 km/hr, 5.71


mi./hr, or 4.95 kt.


[ ] 0.24


[ ] 1.94


[ ] 2.55


5. The surface maximum current speed reported in Figure 1 is color-coded on the map as


________. COS 6 - 4 light blue


greenish yellow




red Figure 1. Surface (0 m depth) Ocean Currents, 4 September 2016, in m/s.


6. Generating electricity by water currents is governed by the same laws of physics as those


governing the production of electricity from wind power. [Power is the rate at which


work is done or energy is transferred.] Basically, a moving fluid (gaseous air or liquid


water) does the work of generating electricity by applying a force that causes turbine


blades to move. However, there are major differences in the speeds of air and water


required to produce equivalent power because the two fluids have such different


densities. Ocean water density is 1027 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and air density


is 1.2 kg/m3 at sea level, making water about ________ times denser than air at sea level.


[ ] 8.6


[ ] 86


[ ] 860 COS 6 - 5 7. Under otherwise similar conditions (including equal cross-sectional areas through which


the flows pass), water has far more potential for generating electricity than air because of


its greater density. For example, a 5 km/hr (3.1 mi/hr or 1.4 m/s) ocean current could


theoretically generate power equivalent to a 47.5 km/hr (29.5 mi/hr or 13.3 m/s) sea-level


wind. Additionally, from an engineering viewpoint, because the ocean current?s speed


and direction are ________ variable than those of wind, the actual ocean-current


generation of power is likely to be substantially greater.


[ ] more


[ ] less


The Florida Current, being close to land, is among the best ocean candidates for generating


electricity. At times it flows as fast as 7.2 km/hr (4.5 mi/hr or 2.0 m/s) within a few miles


offshore of Miami, FL. This is equivalent to a 68.4 km/hr (42.8 mi/hr) sea-level wind.


Studies indicate that about one kilowatt of power per square meter could be extracted from


near-surface flow in the Florida Current. It has been estimated that capturing three


thousandths (0.003) of the energy from the current could meet Florida?s electrical energy


needs. Challenges:


There are numerous technical challenges and potential environmental impacts to the


exploitation of ocean currents to generate electrical energy. Ocean current electrical turbines


must be anchored solidly to the ocean floor to withstand huge horizontal forces. Being in


seawater, corrosion (chemical or electrochemical deterioration) is of special concern, and


marine growth buildup on turbine blades (biofouling) can drastically reduce efficiency.


Cavitation (bubble formation) on the blades creates noise, changes blade shape by eroding


metals, generates vibrations, and reduces blade efficiency. Environmental concerns include


the disruption of nesting areas and the possibility of rotating blades striking sea life. During


construction, activities such as pile driving could have negative noise impacts on fish,


mammals, and sea turtles. Costs of development, construction, maintenance and eventual


decommissioning, along with competition from other energy sources and governmental


incentives, can determine if and when ocean current energy will become a significant


alternate energy source.


8. According to the paragraph above, beyond the economic and environmental challenges


that need to be considered, technical challenges include ________. avoidance of cavitation


corrosion resistance


prevention of marine growth buildup


all of these Actions Being Taken: There is substantial interest in Florida, for good reason as seen in


Figure 1, to investigate and demonstrate the exploitation of ocean currents as a source of


electricity. Florida Atlantic University?s Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy COS 6 - 6 Center (SNMREC) has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance the


science and technology of recovering energy from the oceans? renewable resources, with


special emphasis on those resources available to the southeastern U.S.


For general information about the potential of the vast source of clean, reliable and


renewable energy of the ocean?s moving water and temperature and density gradients that


can be captured and converted to electricity, the Florida state government?s My Florida


Home Energy describes Marine Hydrokinetic ?Blue? Energy. Go to


9. According to the Quick Facts listed at the website, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy


resources are those associated with moving water. The causes of such motion include


________. currents


ocean waves




all of these Figure 2 shows two possible hydrokinetic energy conversion turbines. Figure 2. Visualizations of Two Possible Turbine and Anchor Technologies.


[Department of Interior BOEM]


In addition to research and development of technologies capable of generating renewable


power by ocean current energy conversion, SNMREC is investigating ocean thermal energy


conversion (OTEC).


To Find Out More: The U.S. Department of the Interior?s Bureau of Ocean Energy


Management ( is the lead Federal


Agency dealing with Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Alternative Energy. For details, go to: There, you will find


introductions to all alternative ocean energy resources.


Extra: [Notice that on the Global RTOFS (Real Time Ocean Forecast System) Z-Level


Nowcasts/Forecasts webpage you visited earlier in this Current Ocean Studies COS 6 - 7 [] you can access


real time and archived nowcast and forecast data dealing with various measures including


temperature, salinity, currents at different depths and regions of the world ocean.]




If directed by your instructor, place the answers to Investigations 6A and 6B on the


Investigations Answer Forms and this Current Ocean Studies on the Current Ocean


Studies Answer Form linked from the AMS RealTime Ocean Portal.


©Copyright 2016, American Meteorological Society


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