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Managing Diversity in the Workplace...................

Managing Diversity in the Workplace...................

Chapter Five


Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 2, 4, 5 & 6 on page 149. Part two: Go to: and state what


each of the six paradoxes mean for women in the workplace. Please be


that I know that you understand the paradox being discussed. Then read


following short articles and state how in one to two paragraphs it relates to


challenges women of color face in the workplace as leaders: specific so


one of the


the Part three: Complete End of Chapter Exercise on pages 150-151. Chapter Six


Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 8 found on page 175-6 Part two: Complete Internet Exercise found on page 177 Part three: Read The article (found at the bottom of this assignment? starting on page


seven) and explain the following: A. To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society (sports and non-sport




B. What is the viewpoint of the article in stating that Native American mascots are not done


in a respectful manner?


C. Explain why the author concludes the following statement: The use of stereotypical


images of Native Americans by educational institutions has the potential to create a


racially hostile educational environment that may be intimidating to Indian students.


D. Why is it okay according to the article to use the ?Fighting Irish? as a mascot and not the


Washington Redskins?


E. Are organizations that utilize the Indian mascots being ?cultural competent? as defined


by the book. Why or Why not. Chapter Seven


Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6 on page 210. Part two: Complete End of Chapter Exercise on pages 211-213. Part three:


According to the Crime Report, Washington Post, etc. there is a fact: A year after


Michael Brown?s fatal shooting, unarmed black men are seven times more likely


than whites to die by police gunfire. Is this true? Is this accurate? Is this painting a


negative picture of Caucasian police officers, many of whom may not hold


biases? Please read the following article: guns-violence/


This is not a referendum on the right of the constitution to carry, but to give additional


thought to what we see and hear in the media. After reading, this article in two to four




1. State four points that the article made regarding violence against African Americans.


2. What connection did the article make to history? Do you agree?


3. What does this purport about racism in America and the connection between race,


oppression, and poverty?


4. Watch the following: now


answer the following questions:


a) What are all the various stereotypes of Blacks that are presented?


b) Do you think these stereotypes are real?


c) How would people that hold them interact with Blacks in the workplace, in the


criminal justice field, in universities?


Chapter Eight


Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 3, 4, 5, 8 & 9 on pages 238-239. Part two: Complete Internet Exercise on pages 240 Part three: Part A: Make a chart where you list, Asian American, Latino, Europeans, General


Population. Then go through the timeline below and put a checkmark next to each


group that illustrates when laws were created to prevent that group from migration


or equal opportunity while in the U.S.


Part B: Now state what groups were targeted more as it relates to unfavorable


laws toward their immigration.


Part C: Now answer the following questions:


1. Do you think this biased behavior created workplace unfairness? (Why or


Why not)


2. Do you think this bias can still exist today as it relates to certain groups who


migrate to the U.S. and people looking at them as an Us vs. Them mindset?


Would this mindset contribute to workplace bias? Timeline


Key Dates and Landmarks in United States Immigration History




The Constitution of the United States of America takes effect, succeeding the


Articles of Confederation that had governed the union of states since the


conclusion of the Revolutionary War (March 4, 1789).




The Naturalization Act of 1790 establishes a uniform rule of naturalization


and a two-year residency requirement for aliens who are "free white persons"


of "good moral character" (March 26, 1790).




Considered one of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Naturalization Act of 1798


permits Federalist President John Adams to deport foreigners deemed to be


dangerous and increases the residency requirements to 14 years to prevent


immigrants, who predominantly voted for the Republican Party, from


becoming citizens (June 25, 1798).




The Jefferson Administration revises the Naturalization Act of 1798 by


reducing the residency requirement from 14 to five years.




Importation of slaves into the United States is officially banned, though it


continues illegally long after the ban.




Congress passes an act requiring shipmasters to deliver a manifest


enumerating all aliens transported for immigration. The Secretary of State is


required to report annually to Congress the number of immigrants admitted.




143,439 immigrants arrive






599,125 immigrants arrive






Crop failures in Germany, social turbulence triggered by the rapid


industrialization of European society, political unrest in Europe, and the Irish


Potato Famine (1845?1851) lead to a new period of mass immigration to the


United States.




1,713,251 immigrants arrive






The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War and


extends citizenship to the approximately 80,000 Mexicans living in Texas,


California, and the American Southwest.




Gold is discovered in the American River, near Sacramento, California.




The California gold rush spurs immigration from China and extensive internal






For the first time, the United States Census surveys the "nativity" of citizens


(born inside or outside the US).




2,598,214 immigrants arrive


1860 1854 1855








1862 1862




1863 1869


























1882 The Know-Nothings, a nativist political party seeking to increase restrictions


on immigration, win significant victories in Congress, a sign of popular


dissatisfaction with growing immigration from Catholic Ireland. Protestant


Americans feared that growing Catholic immigration would place American


society under control of the Pope.


Castle Garden is established as New York's principal point of entry.


2,314,825 immigrants arrive


Outbreak of the American Civil War (April 12, 1861).


The Homestead Act provides free plots of up to 160 acres of western land to


settlers who agree to develop and live on it for at least five years, thereby


spurring an influx of immigrants from overpopulated countries in Europe


seeking land of their own.


The "Anti-Coolie" Act discourages Chinese immigration to California and


institutes special taxes on employers who hire Chinese workers.


Riots against the draft in New York City involve many immigrants opposed to


compulsory military service (July 13?16, 1863).


The Central Pacific hires Chinese laborers and the Union Pacific hires Irish


laborers to construct the first transcontinental railroad, which would stretch


from San Francisco to Omaha, allowing continuous travel by rail from coast


to coast.


The First Transcontinental Railroad is completed when the Central Pacific


and Union Pacific lines meet at Promontory Summit, Utah (May 10, 1869).


The Naturalization Act of 1870 expands citizenship to both whites and


African-Americans, though Asians are still excluded.


The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified, granting voting rights to citizens,


regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."


Jacob Riis, who later pioneered photojournalism and authored How the Other


Half Lives, emigrates from Denmark to the United States.


2,812,191 immigrants arrive


5,246,613 immigrants arrive


1 million Germans arrive in the peak of German immigration


2 million Eastern European Jews immigrate to the United States


The Chinese Exclusion Act restricts all Chinese immigration to the United


States for a period of ten years.


The Immigration Act of 1882 levies a tax of 50 cents on all immigrants


landing at US ports and makes several categories of immigrants ineligible for


citizenship, including "lunatics" and people likely to become public charges. 1885 1886


1886 1889


1890 1891?




1891 1892 1892






1901 1902


1906 1907


1907 The Alien Contract Labor Law prohibits any company or individual from


bringing foreigners into the United States under contract to perform labor.


The only exceptions are those immigrants brought to perform domestic


service and skilled workmen needed to help establish a new trade or industry


in the US.


The Statue of Liberty is dedicated in New York Harbor.


Emma Goldman, Lithuanian-born feminist, immigrates to the United States,


where over the next 30 years she will become a prominent American


anarchist. During the First World War, in 1917, she is deported to Russia for


conspiring to obstruct the draft.


Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull-House in Chicago.


The demographic trends in immigration to the United States shift as


immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe substantially increases, while


the relative proportion of immigration from Northern and Western Europe


begins to decrease.


3,687,564 immigrants arrive.


Congress makes "persons suffering from a loathsome or a dangerous


contagious disease," those convicted of a "misdemeanor involving moral


turpitude," and polygamists ineligible for immigration. Congress also


establishes the Office of the Superintendent of Immigration within the


Treasury Department.


The Geary Act extends the Chinese Exclusion Act for ten more years, and


adds the requirement that all Chinese residents carry permits, as well as


excluding them from serving as witnesses in court and from bail in habeus


corpus proceedings.


Ellis Island, the location at which more than 16 million immigrants would be


processed, opens in New York City.


8,795,386 immigrants arrive


After President William McKinley is shot by a Polish anarchist (September 6,


1901) and dies a week later (September 14, 1901), Congress enacts the


Anarchist Exclusion Act, which prohibits the entry into the US of people


judged to be anarchists and political extremists.


The Chinese Exclusion Act is again renewed, with no ending date.


The Naturalization Act of 1906 standardizes naturalization procedures, makes


some knowledge of the English language a requirement for citizenship, and


establishes the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in the Commerce


Department to oversee national immigration policy.


The Expatriation Act declares that an American woman who marries a foreign


national loses her citizenship.


Under an informal "Gentlemen's Agreement," the United States agrees not to


restrict Japanese immigration in exchange for Japan's promise to voluntarily 1907










1911 1913 1917 1917






1919 1921?








1923 1924 restrict Japanese emigration to the United States by not issuing passports to


Japanese laborers. In return, the US promises to crack down on


discrimination against Japanese-Americans, most of whom live in California.


The Dillingham Commission is established by Congress to investigate the


effects of immigration on the United States.


2 million Italians arrive in the peak of Italian immigration


5,735,811 immigrants arrive


The Dillingham Commission, established in 1907, publishes a 42-volume


report warning that the "new" immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe


threatens to subvert American society. The Dillingham Commission's


recommendations lay the foundation for the Quota Acts of the 1920s.


California's Alien Land Law prohibits "aliens ineligible for citizenship"


(Chinese and Japanese) from owning property in the state, providing a model


for similar anti-Asian laws in other states.


Congress enacts a literacy requirement for immigrants by overriding


President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The law requires immigrants to be able to


read 40 words in some language and bans immigration from Asia, except for


Japan and the Philippines.


The US enters the First World War.


The Immigration Act of 1917 restricts immigration from Asia by creating an


"Asiatic Barred Zone."


The Jones-Shafroth Act grants US citizenship to Puerto Ricans, provided that


they can be recruited by the US military.


The First Red Scare leads to an outbreak of fear and violence against people


deemed to be political radicals and foreigners considered to be susceptible to


communist propaganda and more likely to be involved in the Bolshevik




4,107,209 immigrants arrive.


The Emergency Quota Act restricts immigration from a given country to 3%


of the number of people from that country living in the US in 1910.


The Cable Act partially repeals the Expatriation Act, but declares that an


American woman who marries an Asian still loses her citizenship.


In the landmark case of United States v. Bhaghat Singh Thind, the Supreme


Court rules that Indians from the Asian subcontinent cannot become US




The Immigration Act of 1924 limits annual European immigration to 2% of


the number of people from that country living in the United States in 1890.


The Act greatly reduces immigration from Southern and Eastern European


nationalities that had only small populations in the US in 1890. 1924




1929 1931?






1934 1940 The Oriental Exclusion Act prohibits most immigration from Asia, including


foreign-born wives and the children of American citizens of Chinese ancestry.


The Border Patrol is created to combat smuggling and illegal immigration.


The National Origins Formula institutes a quota that caps national


immigration at 150,000 and completely bars Asian immigration, though


immigration from the Western Hemisphere is still permitted.


532,431 immigrants arrive.


To escape persecution by the Nazis, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical


physicist of the century, immigrates to the United States from Germany.


The Tydings-McDuffe Act grants the Philippines independence from the


United States on July 4, 1946, but strips Filipinos of US citizenship and


severely restricts Filipino immigration to the United States.


The Alien Registration Act requires the registration and fingerprinting of all


aliens in the United States over the age of 14. Sources


Calavita, Kitty. US Immigration Law and the Control of Labor: 1820-1924. London, Orlando:


Academic Press, 1984.


Digital History: Ethnic Voices.


LeMay, Michael and Robert Barkan Elliott, eds., US Immigration and Naturalization Laws and


Issues: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.


Smith, Marian L. Overview of INS History to 1998. ARTICLE (for Chapter six exercise)


Contact Information:


Dr. Chris Kraatz


Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy


Indiana University ? Purdue University Indianapolis


Cavanaugh Hall, Rm 331


425 University Blvd


Indianapolis, IN 46202


[email protected]


(317) 274-5344


Abstract: The Truth About American Indian Mascots


The truth about American Indian mascots is that they cannot be morally justified. This is


demonstrated by outlining the extent of the ?mascotizing? of Indians in American culture, and


then assessing the reliability of the various means at our disposal for morally evaluating this


practice. In the end, the argument is that the only reliable avenue to ascertaining the truth about


such mascots is listening to what representative groups of Indians have to say about them. Moreover, the opinions of such representative groups regarding the mascots that depict them are


overwhelmingly condemnatory. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


The Truth about American Indian Mascots


by Dr. Chris Kraatz


Schools that continue the use of Indian imagery and references?have simply


failed to listen to the Native groups, religious leaders, and civil rights organizations that


oppose these symbols?[T]he use of the imagery and traditions, no matter how popular,


should end when they are offensive.


(United States Civil Rights Commission - April 13, 2001)


To ?mascotize? a group of people is systematically to attach depictions of that group to


commercial products, ventures or enterprises such that (1) the depicted group is defined by


nationality, race, ethnicity or religion, (2) the depictions are designed by and profit only people


outside the depicted group, and (3) the depictions are considered disrespectful, inappropriate, or


stereotypic by a majority of persons within the depicted group.


The ?mascotizing? of a group is to be distinguished from isolated individual cases of such


depictions. For although individual cases of depictions fitting the above description may in fact


be offensive or stereotypic, they do not systematically reduce the status of a group from


?persons? to ?mascots.? The infamous ?Frito Bandito,? for example, had all of the above three


properties. But it does not follow that Mexican-Americans have as a group been reduced to


mascots. ?Mascotizing? is a systematic reduction of group status achieved through a multitude of


commercial enterprises. As this paper will argue, although there are a variety of mascots in


American culture which depict different groups of people, American Indians are the only group


to have been ?mascotized? in this systematic fashion.


Due to their significant media coverage, sports teams are the most visible users of Indian


mascots. It is no surprise, therefore, that most of the controversy surrounding Indian mascots


involves sports teams. Major league teams receive most of the attention on this matter, but Indian


mascots are not limited to teams of professional status. According to the National Coalition on


Racism in Sports and the Media, there are nearly 3,000 sports teams in the United States with


mascots of Indian theme. This figure includes professional teams, college and university teams,


high school and junior high school teams, and elementary school teams. These figures do not


include ?little league? teams for baseball, football, soccer, etc.


Despite the overwhelming multitude of sports team mascots in the United States, sports


represents only a portion of the mascotizing of American Indians. There are significant areas of


interest outside the sports arenas where this curious phenomenon can readily be observed, and discussion of the mascot issue would lack important insights were these areas not included.


Automobile manufacturers, for example, often make explicit use of Indian names, images and


themes. A casual perusing of the Kelley Blue Book can find at least ten recent models which


confirm this, and this number grows significantly when motorcycles and recreational vehicles are




The task of enumerating the Indian names and images on grocery store products would be


daunting indeed. Products including apple juice, margarine, beef jerky, chewing tobacco, and


bottled water are but a few examples of those bearing Indian names and/or logos. There are


alcoholic beverages with such names or themes on their labels; Crazy Horse has a malt liquor


named after him (not to mention a stunning line of women?s clothing by Liz Claiborne). The


Indianapolis telephone book has five different listings for ?Cherokee? including a construction


firm, a concrete supplier, a home remodeling company, a realtor, and a window manufacturer;


?Indian? is used to name a church, a youth league, a food service, a country club and a golf shop;


?Dakota? names a consulting group, an engineering company, a golf course and a retail watch


company (the ?Dakota Watch Company? is an inexplicable curiosity, as the Dakota have no word


in their language for ?time?).


Sports teams are a flash point for the Indian mascot controversy, but the central issue at


stake extends into nearly every corner of life in America. There seems to be no kind of product or


company that falls outside the scope of this pervasive use of American Indian names, images and


themes. An attempt to list all the products, companies and teams which use American Indian


names, logos, etc. would itself more than exhaust the limits of this paper. In light of the


endlessness of this phenomenon, one cannot help but ask: ?Is this a good thing??


This question would perhaps be easier to answer if there were other readily available


examples of systematic use of nationality, race, ethnicity or religious tradition in a way that is


similar to what we have been describing. But there are no other circumstances or phenomena in


American culture that could be considered even roughly analogous to this overwhelming


commercial appropriation of Indians. Although it is often noted, for example, that there are


sports teams that use names or images of other groups of people besides Indians, the way in


which sports teams use non-Indian group names is fundamentally different from the way in


which Indian names are used. Team names such as ?Cowboys,? ?Patriots,? ?Senators? or


?Cavaliers,? for example, do not constitute an analogous mascotizing of anyone for the simple


reason that even though these names refer to groups of people, the group names are generic and


do not refer in any significant way to nationality, race, ethnicity or religion. Names, however,


such as ?Seminoles,? ?Chiefs,? ?Braves? or ?Fighting Sioux? refer explicitly to nationality, race,


ethnicity and religion.


?Trojans,? ?Spartans? and ?Vikings? are popular sports team names that pick out groups


according to nationality, race or ethnicity, but these are also fundamentally different from Indian


mascots. These names do not depict existing peoples and cannot, therefore, affect the lives of


those they depict (for better or for worse) ? neither can they be regarded as appropriate or


inappropriate by the groups in question. The Notre Dame Fighting Irish and the Boston Celtics


actually are examples of sports teams whose names and images depict an existing racial or ethnic


group, but even these are significantly different from the cases of Indian mascots. The Celtics play in a city with a large Irish population, the Fighting Irish represent a university established


and largely populated by Irish people. Although it may appear that these would constitute


examples of mascotizing analogous to that of American Indians, they do not for the simple


reason that they were thought up and instituted by the very people (or group) that they depict.


There is no such Indian mascot that was similarly devised by Indian persons. Another relevant


difference between these cases is that what Irish people say about the mascots that depict them is


taken as decisive in establishing the legitimacy of the mascots. The team names ?Celtics? and


?Fighting Irish? tend to be quite popular among persons of Irish heritage, and this popularity is


taken as a reliable indicator of the appropriateness of these names. But the fact that Indian


mascots tend to be grossly unpopular among Indians is not taken as an indicator that there may


be something inappropriate about them ? if it were, then there would be no more Indian mascots.


The only persons who defend the use of American Indians as sports team mascots are those who


profit from the use of such images ? coincidentally, there is no group of American Indian


affiliation that profits even from a single mascot.


In searching for other instances of mascots that are similar in relevant ways, we always


come up short. American Indian sports mascots are unique in that they have all of the following


properties: (1) they depict groups of people based on nationality, race, ethnicity or religion, (2)


they are designed only by and make a profit solely for people outside the group that they depict,


and (3) they are considered disrespectful, inappropriate, and stereotypic by a majority of persons


within the group that they depict. Even assuming that these points have been overstated and that


there actually are several (or even one hundred) teams with non-Indian mascots that satisfy these


same criteria, we still have no basis for meaningful comparison or analogy due to the sheer


overwhelming number of teams with Indian names, etc. It is not only the name use that we are


trying to address here, but also the pervasive scope of the phenomenon. There are thousands of


Indian-themed teams in the United States, no similar situation exists for any other group.


This apparent uniqueness of the mascotizing of Indians can also be observed in the other


areas mentioned previously. There are no automobiles named after other groups of people,




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