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Managing Diversity in the Workplace...................


Chapter Five

 

Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 2, 4, 5 & 6 on page 149. Part two: Go to: https://hbr.org/2013/01/six-paradoxes-women-leaders-fa and state what

 

each of the six paradoxes mean for women in the workplace. Please be

 

that I know that you understand the paradox being discussed. Then read

 

following short articles and state how in one to two paragraphs it relates to

 

challenges women of color face in the workplace as leaders: http://fortune.com/2015/04/22/black-women-leadership-study/ http://www.newnewsletter.org/bestpractices/newreport2_woc0407.pdf http://www.forbes.com/sites/ruchikatulshyan/2015/02/10/speaking-up-asa-woman-of-color-at-work/#5b20f5c59c1e specific so

 

one of the

 

the Part three: Complete End of Chapter Exercise on pages 150-151. Chapter Six

 

Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 8 found on page 175-6 Part two: Complete Internet Exercise found on page 177 Part three: Read The article (found at the bottom of this assignment? starting on page

 

seven) and explain the following: A. To what degree is Indian Mascots an issue an American society (sports and non-sport

 

entities)?

 

B. What is the viewpoint of the article in stating that Native American mascots are not done

 

in a respectful manner?

 

C. Explain why the author concludes the following statement: The use of stereotypical

 

images of Native Americans by educational institutions has the potential to create a

 

racially hostile educational environment that may be intimidating to Indian students.

 

D. Why is it okay according to the article to use the ?Fighting Irish? as a mascot and not the

 

Washington Redskins?

 

E. Are organizations that utilize the Indian mascots being ?cultural competent? as defined

 

by the book. Why or Why not. Chapter Seven

 

Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6 on page 210. Part two: Complete End of Chapter Exercise on pages 211-213. Part three:

 

According to the Crime Report, Washington Post, etc. there is a fact: A year after

 

Michael Brown?s fatal shooting, unarmed black men are seven times more likely

 

than whites to die by police gunfire. Is this true? Is this accurate? Is this painting a

 

negative picture of Caucasian police officers, many of whom may not hold

 

biases? Please read the following article:

 

http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/01/05/americas-police-problem-isnt-justabout-police- guns-violence/

 

This is not a referendum on the right of the constitution to carry, but to give additional

 

thought to what we see and hear in the media. After reading, this article in two to four

 

paragraphs:

 

1. State four points that the article made regarding violence against African Americans.

 

2. What connection did the article make to history? Do you agree?

 

3. What does this purport about racism in America and the connection between race,

 

oppression, and poverty?

 

4. Watch the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMTv0rmBEKY now

 

answer the following questions:

 

a) What are all the various stereotypes of Blacks that are presented?

 

b) Do you think these stereotypes are real?

 

c) How would people that hold them interact with Blacks in the workplace, in the

 

criminal justice field, in universities?

 

Chapter Eight

 

Part one: Complete End of Chapter Questions 3, 4, 5, 8 & 9 on pages 238-239. Part two: Complete Internet Exercise on pages 240 Part three: Part A: Make a chart where you list, Asian American, Latino, Europeans, General

 

Population. Then go through the timeline below and put a checkmark next to each

 

group that illustrates when laws were created to prevent that group from migration

 

or equal opportunity while in the U.S.

 

Part B: Now state what groups were targeted more as it relates to unfavorable

 

laws toward their immigration.

 

Part C: Now answer the following questions:

 

1. Do you think this biased behavior created workplace unfairness? (Why or

 

Why not)

 

2. Do you think this bias can still exist today as it relates to certain groups who

 

migrate to the U.S. and people looking at them as an Us vs. Them mindset?

 

Would this mindset contribute to workplace bias? Timeline

 

Key Dates and Landmarks in United States Immigration History

 

1789

 

The Constitution of the United States of America takes effect, succeeding the

 

Articles of Confederation that had governed the union of states since the

 

conclusion of the Revolutionary War (March 4, 1789).

 

1790

 

The Naturalization Act of 1790 establishes a uniform rule of naturalization

 

and a two-year residency requirement for aliens who are "free white persons"

 

of "good moral character" (March 26, 1790).

 

1798

 

Considered one of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Naturalization Act of 1798

 

permits Federalist President John Adams to deport foreigners deemed to be

 

dangerous and increases the residency requirements to 14 years to prevent

 

immigrants, who predominantly voted for the Republican Party, from

 

becoming citizens (June 25, 1798).

 

1802

 

The Jefferson Administration revises the Naturalization Act of 1798 by

 

reducing the residency requirement from 14 to five years.

 

1808

 

Importation of slaves into the United States is officially banned, though it

 

continues illegally long after the ban.

 

1819

 

Congress passes an act requiring shipmasters to deliver a manifest

 

enumerating all aliens transported for immigration. The Secretary of State is

 

required to report annually to Congress the number of immigrants admitted.

 

1821?

 

143,439 immigrants arrive

 

1830

 

1831?

 

599,125 immigrants arrive

 

1840

 

1840s

 

Crop failures in Germany, social turbulence triggered by the rapid

 

industrialization of European society, political unrest in Europe, and the Irish

 

Potato Famine (1845?1851) lead to a new period of mass immigration to the

 

United States.

 

1841?

 

1,713,251 immigrants arrive

 

1850

 

1848

 

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War and

 

extends citizenship to the approximately 80,000 Mexicans living in Texas,

 

California, and the American Southwest.

 

1848

 

Gold is discovered in the American River, near Sacramento, California.

 

1849

 

The California gold rush spurs immigration from China and extensive internal

 

migration.

 

1850

 

For the first time, the United States Census surveys the "nativity" of citizens

 

(born inside or outside the US).

 

1851?

 

2,598,214 immigrants arrive

 

1860 1854 1855

 

1861?

 

1870

 

1861

 

1862 1862

 

1863

 

1863 1869

 

1870

 

1870

 

1870

 

1871?

 

1880

 

1881?

 

1890

 

1881?

 

1885

 

1881?

 

1920

 

1882

 

1882 The Know-Nothings, a nativist political party seeking to increase restrictions

 

on immigration, win significant victories in Congress, a sign of popular

 

dissatisfaction with growing immigration from Catholic Ireland. Protestant

 

Americans feared that growing Catholic immigration would place American

 

society under control of the Pope.

 

Castle Garden is established as New York's principal point of entry.

 

2,314,825 immigrants arrive

 

Outbreak of the American Civil War (April 12, 1861).

 

The Homestead Act provides free plots of up to 160 acres of western land to

 

settlers who agree to develop and live on it for at least five years, thereby

 

spurring an influx of immigrants from overpopulated countries in Europe

 

seeking land of their own.

 

The "Anti-Coolie" Act discourages Chinese immigration to California and

 

institutes special taxes on employers who hire Chinese workers.

 

Riots against the draft in New York City involve many immigrants opposed to

 

compulsory military service (July 13?16, 1863).

 

The Central Pacific hires Chinese laborers and the Union Pacific hires Irish

 

laborers to construct the first transcontinental railroad, which would stretch

 

from San Francisco to Omaha, allowing continuous travel by rail from coast

 

to coast.

 

The First Transcontinental Railroad is completed when the Central Pacific

 

and Union Pacific lines meet at Promontory Summit, Utah (May 10, 1869).

 

The Naturalization Act of 1870 expands citizenship to both whites and

 

African-Americans, though Asians are still excluded.

 

The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified, granting voting rights to citizens,

 

regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

 

Jacob Riis, who later pioneered photojournalism and authored How the Other

 

Half Lives, emigrates from Denmark to the United States.

 

2,812,191 immigrants arrive

 

5,246,613 immigrants arrive

 

1 million Germans arrive in the peak of German immigration

 

2 million Eastern European Jews immigrate to the United States

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act restricts all Chinese immigration to the United

 

States for a period of ten years.

 

The Immigration Act of 1882 levies a tax of 50 cents on all immigrants

 

landing at US ports and makes several categories of immigrants ineligible for

 

citizenship, including "lunatics" and people likely to become public charges. 1885 1886

 

1886 1889

 

1890 1891?

 

1900

 

1891 1892 1892

 

1901?

 

1910

 

1901 1902

 

1906 1907

 

1907 The Alien Contract Labor Law prohibits any company or individual from

 

bringing foreigners into the United States under contract to perform labor.

 

The only exceptions are those immigrants brought to perform domestic

 

service and skilled workmen needed to help establish a new trade or industry

 

in the US.

 

The Statue of Liberty is dedicated in New York Harbor.

 

Emma Goldman, Lithuanian-born feminist, immigrates to the United States,

 

where over the next 30 years she will become a prominent American

 

anarchist. During the First World War, in 1917, she is deported to Russia for

 

conspiring to obstruct the draft.

 

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull-House in Chicago.

 

The demographic trends in immigration to the United States shift as

 

immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe substantially increases, while

 

the relative proportion of immigration from Northern and Western Europe

 

begins to decrease.

 

3,687,564 immigrants arrive.

 

Congress makes "persons suffering from a loathsome or a dangerous

 

contagious disease," those convicted of a "misdemeanor involving moral

 

turpitude," and polygamists ineligible for immigration. Congress also

 

establishes the Office of the Superintendent of Immigration within the

 

Treasury Department.

 

The Geary Act extends the Chinese Exclusion Act for ten more years, and

 

adds the requirement that all Chinese residents carry permits, as well as

 

excluding them from serving as witnesses in court and from bail in habeus

 

corpus proceedings.

 

Ellis Island, the location at which more than 16 million immigrants would be

 

processed, opens in New York City.

 

8,795,386 immigrants arrive

 

After President William McKinley is shot by a Polish anarchist (September 6,

 

1901) and dies a week later (September 14, 1901), Congress enacts the

 

Anarchist Exclusion Act, which prohibits the entry into the US of people

 

judged to be anarchists and political extremists.

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act is again renewed, with no ending date.

 

The Naturalization Act of 1906 standardizes naturalization procedures, makes

 

some knowledge of the English language a requirement for citizenship, and

 

establishes the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization in the Commerce

 

Department to oversee national immigration policy.

 

The Expatriation Act declares that an American woman who marries a foreign

 

national loses her citizenship.

 

Under an informal "Gentlemen's Agreement," the United States agrees not to

 

restrict Japanese immigration in exchange for Japan's promise to voluntarily 1907

 

1911?

 

1920

 

1911?

 

1920

 

1911 1913 1917 1917

 

1917

 

1917

 

1919 1921?

 

1930

 

1921

 

1922

 

1923 1924 restrict Japanese emigration to the United States by not issuing passports to

 

Japanese laborers. In return, the US promises to crack down on

 

discrimination against Japanese-Americans, most of whom live in California.

 

The Dillingham Commission is established by Congress to investigate the

 

effects of immigration on the United States.

 

2 million Italians arrive in the peak of Italian immigration

 

5,735,811 immigrants arrive

 

The Dillingham Commission, established in 1907, publishes a 42-volume

 

report warning that the "new" immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe

 

threatens to subvert American society. The Dillingham Commission's

 

recommendations lay the foundation for the Quota Acts of the 1920s.

 

California's Alien Land Law prohibits "aliens ineligible for citizenship"

 

(Chinese and Japanese) from owning property in the state, providing a model

 

for similar anti-Asian laws in other states.

 

Congress enacts a literacy requirement for immigrants by overriding

 

President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The law requires immigrants to be able to

 

read 40 words in some language and bans immigration from Asia, except for

 

Japan and the Philippines.

 

The US enters the First World War.

 

The Immigration Act of 1917 restricts immigration from Asia by creating an

 

"Asiatic Barred Zone."

 

The Jones-Shafroth Act grants US citizenship to Puerto Ricans, provided that

 

they can be recruited by the US military.

 

The First Red Scare leads to an outbreak of fear and violence against people

 

deemed to be political radicals and foreigners considered to be susceptible to

 

communist propaganda and more likely to be involved in the Bolshevik

 

Revolution.

 

4,107,209 immigrants arrive.

 

The Emergency Quota Act restricts immigration from a given country to 3%

 

of the number of people from that country living in the US in 1910.

 

The Cable Act partially repeals the Expatriation Act, but declares that an

 

American woman who marries an Asian still loses her citizenship.

 

In the landmark case of United States v. Bhaghat Singh Thind, the Supreme

 

Court rules that Indians from the Asian subcontinent cannot become US

 

citizens.

 

The Immigration Act of 1924 limits annual European immigration to 2% of

 

the number of people from that country living in the United States in 1890.

 

The Act greatly reduces immigration from Southern and Eastern European

 

nationalities that had only small populations in the US in 1890. 1924

 

1924

 

1929 1931?

 

1940

 

1933

 

1934 1940 The Oriental Exclusion Act prohibits most immigration from Asia, including

 

foreign-born wives and the children of American citizens of Chinese ancestry.

 

The Border Patrol is created to combat smuggling and illegal immigration.

 

The National Origins Formula institutes a quota that caps national

 

immigration at 150,000 and completely bars Asian immigration, though

 

immigration from the Western Hemisphere is still permitted.

 

532,431 immigrants arrive.

 

To escape persecution by the Nazis, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical

 

physicist of the century, immigrates to the United States from Germany.

 

The Tydings-McDuffe Act grants the Philippines independence from the

 

United States on July 4, 1946, but strips Filipinos of US citizenship and

 

severely restricts Filipino immigration to the United States.

 

The Alien Registration Act requires the registration and fingerprinting of all

 

aliens in the United States over the age of 14. Sources

 

Calavita, Kitty. US Immigration Law and the Control of Labor: 1820-1924. London, Orlando:

 

Academic Press, 1984.

 

Digital History: Ethnic Voices.

 

LeMay, Michael and Robert Barkan Elliott, eds., US Immigration and Naturalization Laws and

 

Issues: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

 

Smith, Marian L. Overview of INS History to 1998. ARTICLE (for Chapter six exercise)

 

Contact Information:

 

Dr. Chris Kraatz

 

Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy

 

Indiana University ? Purdue University Indianapolis

 

Cavanaugh Hall, Rm 331

 

425 University Blvd

 

Indianapolis, IN 46202

 

[email protected]

 

http://www.iupui.edu/~philosop/ckraatz.htm

 

(317) 274-5344

 

Abstract: The Truth About American Indian Mascots

 

The truth about American Indian mascots is that they cannot be morally justified. This is

 

demonstrated by outlining the extent of the ?mascotizing? of Indians in American culture, and

 

then assessing the reliability of the various means at our disposal for morally evaluating this

 

practice. In the end, the argument is that the only reliable avenue to ascertaining the truth about

 

such mascots is listening to what representative groups of Indians have to say about them. Moreover, the opinions of such representative groups regarding the mascots that depict them are

 

overwhelmingly condemnatory. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

The Truth about American Indian Mascots

 

by Dr. Chris Kraatz

 

Schools that continue the use of Indian imagery and references?have simply

 

failed to listen to the Native groups, religious leaders, and civil rights organizations that

 

oppose these symbols?[T]he use of the imagery and traditions, no matter how popular,

 

should end when they are offensive.

 

(United States Civil Rights Commission - April 13, 2001)

 

To ?mascotize? a group of people is systematically to attach depictions of that group to

 

commercial products, ventures or enterprises such that (1) the depicted group is defined by

 

nationality, race, ethnicity or religion, (2) the depictions are designed by and profit only people

 

outside the depicted group, and (3) the depictions are considered disrespectful, inappropriate, or

 

stereotypic by a majority of persons within the depicted group.

 

The ?mascotizing? of a group is to be distinguished from isolated individual cases of such

 

depictions. For although individual cases of depictions fitting the above description may in fact

 

be offensive or stereotypic, they do not systematically reduce the status of a group from

 

?persons? to ?mascots.? The infamous ?Frito Bandito,? for example, had all of the above three

 

properties. But it does not follow that Mexican-Americans have as a group been reduced to

 

mascots. ?Mascotizing? is a systematic reduction of group status achieved through a multitude of

 

commercial enterprises. As this paper will argue, although there are a variety of mascots in

 

American culture which depict different groups of people, American Indians are the only group

 

to have been ?mascotized? in this systematic fashion.

 

Due to their significant media coverage, sports teams are the most visible users of Indian

 

mascots. It is no surprise, therefore, that most of the controversy surrounding Indian mascots

 

involves sports teams. Major league teams receive most of the attention on this matter, but Indian

 

mascots are not limited to teams of professional status. According to the National Coalition on

 

Racism in Sports and the Media, there are nearly 3,000 sports teams in the United States with

 

mascots of Indian theme. This figure includes professional teams, college and university teams,

 

high school and junior high school teams, and elementary school teams. These figures do not

 

include ?little league? teams for baseball, football, soccer, etc.

 

Despite the overwhelming multitude of sports team mascots in the United States, sports

 

represents only a portion of the mascotizing of American Indians. There are significant areas of

 

interest outside the sports arenas where this curious phenomenon can readily be observed, and discussion of the mascot issue would lack important insights were these areas not included.

 

Automobile manufacturers, for example, often make explicit use of Indian names, images and

 

themes. A casual perusing of the Kelley Blue Book can find at least ten recent models which

 

confirm this, and this number grows significantly when motorcycles and recreational vehicles are

 

included.

 

The task of enumerating the Indian names and images on grocery store products would be

 

daunting indeed. Products including apple juice, margarine, beef jerky, chewing tobacco, and

 

bottled water are but a few examples of those bearing Indian names and/or logos. There are

 

alcoholic beverages with such names or themes on their labels; Crazy Horse has a malt liquor

 

named after him (not to mention a stunning line of women?s clothing by Liz Claiborne). The

 

Indianapolis telephone book has five different listings for ?Cherokee? including a construction

 

firm, a concrete supplier, a home remodeling company, a realtor, and a window manufacturer;

 

?Indian? is used to name a church, a youth league, a food service, a country club and a golf shop;

 

?Dakota? names a consulting group, an engineering company, a golf course and a retail watch

 

company (the ?Dakota Watch Company? is an inexplicable curiosity, as the Dakota have no word

 

in their language for ?time?).

 

Sports teams are a flash point for the Indian mascot controversy, but the central issue at

 

stake extends into nearly every corner of life in America. There seems to be no kind of product or

 

company that falls outside the scope of this pervasive use of American Indian names, images and

 

themes. An attempt to list all the products, companies and teams which use American Indian

 

names, logos, etc. would itself more than exhaust the limits of this paper. In light of the

 

endlessness of this phenomenon, one cannot help but ask: ?Is this a good thing??

 

This question would perhaps be easier to answer if there were other readily available

 

examples of systematic use of nationality, race, ethnicity or religious tradition in a way that is

 

similar to what we have been describing. But there are no other circumstances or phenomena in

 

American culture that could be considered even roughly analogous to this overwhelming

 

commercial appropriation of Indians. Although it is often noted, for example, that there are

 

sports teams that use names or images of other groups of people besides Indians, the way in

 

which sports teams use non-Indian group names is fundamentally different from the way in

 

which Indian names are used. Team names such as ?Cowboys,? ?Patriots,? ?Senators? or

 

?Cavaliers,? for example, do not constitute an analogous mascotizing of anyone for the simple

 

reason that even though these names refer to groups of people, the group names are generic and

 

do not refer in any significant way to nationality, race, ethnicity or religion. Names, however,

 

such as ?Seminoles,? ?Chiefs,? ?Braves? or ?Fighting Sioux? refer explicitly to nationality, race,

 

ethnicity and religion.

 

?Trojans,? ?Spartans? and ?Vikings? are popular sports team names that pick out groups

 

according to nationality, race or ethnicity, but these are also fundamentally different from Indian

 

mascots. These names do not depict existing peoples and cannot, therefore, affect the lives of

 

those they depict (for better or for worse) ? neither can they be regarded as appropriate or

 

inappropriate by the groups in question. The Notre Dame Fighting Irish and the Boston Celtics

 

actually are examples of sports teams whose names and images depict an existing racial or ethnic

 

group, but even these are significantly different from the cases of Indian mascots. The Celtics play in a city with a large Irish population, the Fighting Irish represent a university established

 

and largely populated by Irish people. Although it may appear that these would constitute

 

examples of mascotizing analogous to that of American Indians, they do not for the simple

 

reason that they were thought up and instituted by the very people (or group) that they depict.

 

There is no such Indian mascot that was similarly devised by Indian persons. Another relevant

 

difference between these cases is that what Irish people say about the mascots that depict them is

 

taken as decisive in establishing the legitimacy of the mascots. The team names ?Celtics? and

 

?Fighting Irish? tend to be quite popular among persons of Irish heritage, and this popularity is

 

taken as a reliable indicator of the appropriateness of these names. But the fact that Indian

 

mascots tend to be grossly unpopular among Indians is not taken as an indicator that there may

 

be something inappropriate about them ? if it were, then there would be no more Indian mascots.

 

The only persons who defend the use of American Indians as sports team mascots are those who

 

profit from the use of such images ? coincidentally, there is no group of American Indian

 

affiliation that profits even from a single mascot.

 

In searching for other instances of mascots that are similar in relevant ways, we always

 

come up short. American Indian sports mascots are unique in that they have all of the following

 

properties: (1) they depict groups of people based on nationality, race, ethnicity or religion, (2)

 

they are designed only by and make a profit solely for people outside the group that they depict,

 

and (3) they are considered disrespectful, inappropriate, and stereotypic by a majority of persons

 

within the group that they depict. Even assuming that these points have been overstated and that

 

there actually are several (or even one hundred) teams with non-Indian mascots that satisfy these

 

same criteria, we still have no basis for meaningful comparison or analogy due to the sheer

 

overwhelming number of teams with Indian names, etc. It is not only the name use that we are

 

trying to address here, but also the pervasive scope of the phenomenon. There are thousands of

 

Indian-themed teams in the United States, no similar situation exists for any other group.

 

This apparent uniqueness of the mascotizing of Indians can also be observed in the other

 

areas mentioned previously. There are no automobiles named after other groups of people,

 

Indians...

 







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