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UCLA linguistic 20 homework #2 help me with this homework plz
UCLA linguistic 20 homework #2
help me with this homework plz
Introduction to Linguistics Hayes et al.
Fall 2016 Homework #2: Morphology II, Phrase Structure
Due in class on Mon. October 10
When you write up this homework, please put your name and section on your answer!
1. Reduplication in Marshallese Marshallese is an Austronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands of the Pacific. The
following data illustrate a word formation rule of Marshallese. I have simplified the data by
omitting some affixes, altering the glosses, and also ignoring some irrelevant distinctions
?fiery-intensive? tææ? ?popular? tææ?ææ? ?popular-intensive? jit??l
?dishonest-intensive? a. State clearly in words how this reduplication pattern works.
b. Write a formal rule that handles this kind of reduplication. Use the models in (72) and Study
Exercise 8 in your text.
If you like, you may use the symbol S to stand for any speech sound.
It?s possible to solve this problem without knowing the meaning of the phonetic symbols,
but a quick guide if you are curious is: Linguistics 20, Fall 2016 Homework #2 p. 2 [j] is actually the ?y? sound in IPA.
[?] is the last sound of sing
[q] is like [k] but made with the tongue further back in the mouth.
[?] is a vowel rather like the vowel of boat but made without rounding the lips.
[?] is a vowel rather like the vowel of boot but made without rounding the lips.
[æ] is the vowel of bat.
Else vowel letters are more or less as in Spanish.
Double vowels sound like single vowels but are longer.
2. Plurals in Koasati Koasati is an American Indian language of the Muskogean family, spoken in Louisiana. I
have simplified the data a bit for purposes of a problem set, specifically by removing some
irrelevant suffixes and removing the effects of phonology.
Singular subject Plural subject Gloss akocofot
wil ?jump down?
?pull up something?
?slice up the middle?
?cut up tanned skin?
?strip skin off something?
?tear up the earth? a.
b. State clearly in words how the plural-subject verb is formed.
Formalize a rule for plural formation, using the notation taught in this class. You may
also assume the inflectional feature [Number], with values [Number:singular] and
[Number:plural] Phonetic symbols if you are curious:
[c] is like a [k] but with tongue further forward.
[?] is a hissy sound made with the tongue in position for [l].
3. Ambiguity in morphology
Here are a few English words with the prefix mini- that are ambiguous.
mini-bus stop ?donut store that is small?
?store where you can buy small donuts?
?small place for getting on the bus?
?place where a small bus stops? Linguistics 20, Fall 2016 mini-turtle pond
mini-cup rack Homework #2 p. 3 ?small pond for turtles?
?pond for small turtles?
?small rack for cups?
?rack for small cups? a. Write the appropriate prefixation rule for mini-. Here are representative data:
miniskirt ?a small skirt?
minibus ?a small bus?
minimug ?a small mug? 1
A model for answer-format is (52) in the text.
b. Use your rule, plus the Compounding Rule in the text (p. 49) and provide derivations for
both meanings of mini-bus stop. See (61) in the text for a model for the format of derivations.
You?ll need to be a bit flexible for the compounds, which have two input stems, not one; just go
ahead and improvise.
c. Optional zero-credit question: are these forms ambiguous when spoken aloud? You may
be able to detect an (unspelled) difference in the way they are pronounced by native speakers.
What is this difference?
4. Characterizing syntactic ambiguity with multiple phrase structure Do all the syntax study exercises in this week?s readings (on your own; you don?t need to
hand them in.)
Now, give each of the following sentences two trees, one for each meaning.
Note: do not diagram the meanings! Just the sentences themselves. See Study Exercise 16
in the text for model answers.
a. Alice ordered mangoes from India.
i. ?It was mangoes from India that Alice ordered.? 2
ii. ?It was from India that Alice ordered mangoes.?
b. Fred and Sam?s car might arrive on Monday.
i. (a person and a car will arrive)
ii. (a car belonging to two people)
c. The learned judge spies.
i. ?The people with lots of education pass verdict on espionage agents.?
ii. ?The judge with lots of education is an espionage agent.?
d. They mailed the French mushrooms.
i. ?They mailed the mushrooms that were French.?
1 I found a huge set of examples at
2 Perhaps Alice ordered them from an American fruit-by-mail company; her order itself did not go to India. Linguistics 20, Fall 2016 Homework #2 ii. ?They mailed mushrooms to the French people.?
e. She wrote and published a book.
i. ?What she did with that book was to write and (then) publish it.?
ii. ?She wrote (something else) and then published (perhaps someone else?s) book. p. 4
This question was answered on: Feb 21, 2020
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