Question Details

[solution] » Gehring U. et al. (2013). Air pollution exposure and lung

Brief item decscription

Step-by-step solution file


Item details:

Gehring U. et al. (2013). Air pollution exposure and lung
More:

Gehring U. et al. (2013). Air pollution exposure and lung function in children: the ESCAPE  project. Environmental Health Perspectives. 121(11-12): 1357-64.

Use the article above, go to the website and provide a scholarly critique of the contents. Use the format below and with all the headings. This a sample of what I have done, and I do expect you to use your own words to avoid plagiarism. You can also chose to actually redo the work as I did but must be in your own words.

Introduction

Air pollution and air quality are of growing importance with the ever increasing concerns on the number of acute air pollution episodes in many cities worldwide. To date, air pollution both out door or ambient and indoor are the biggest environmental risk to health, causing one in every nine deaths annually (WHO, 2016). Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity Chen et al., (2015).

What do you think the public health significance of the research question in this study was?

Air pollution plays a role in the exacerbation of existing asthma in children (Chen et al, 2015), and as such Gehring et al.(2013), research is therefore highly significant judging from the increasing evidences from adverse respiratory effects from air pollutants in children with increased lung function deficits (Urman R, (2014), Gauderman e.t al., (2004 ) andGauderman et, al., (2007) and chronic incidence of asthma (Jerrett et al, 2008 and McConnell R, 2010). These pollutants can be either from ambient air pollutants, or near source exposure to traffic related pollutants or industrial emissions in the environment. Chen et al.( 2015), indicated that adverse respiratory effects are more severe in children owing rapidly growing lung tissues, incomplete and undeveloped immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. These findings are consistent with the authors findings that exposure to air pollutants may result in ling functions in school children.

Is it mostly of local significance or is there a global impact? Explain.

The study has a both local and global significance and impact. Worldwide air pollution is associated with a broad range of issues acute and chronic respiratory health issues. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution alone kills around 3 million people each year, mainly from non-communicable diseases (WHO, 2016). World Health Organization (WHO), presented a Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and confirmed Particulate air pollution is consistently and independently related to the most serious effects, including lung cancer and other cardiopulmonary mortality(WHO, 2006).

Does the study fill an important gap, in your opinion? Why or why not?

The Study does fill an important study gap. Quantitative summaries of estimated effects of air pollutants are lacking in the literature owing to differences regarding study design, exposure, pollutants lung function measure and statistical analysis (Gotshi et al, 2008). Personal monitoring studies have generally found very poor correlations between personal exposures and outdoor air concentrations. This has led to questions regarding the scientific basis of the new EPA standard (Wallace, 2010). Gehring et al.(2013), results does give some quantitative correlation between exposure to air pollution and decreased lung function in school children (6-8 years old) using FEV and PEF measurements for NO­2, NOx and PM2.5absorbance but did not account on the concerns on validity and reliability to allow for generalization in the population.

Critique the methodology.

This methodology used is based on combining estimates of exposure to air pollution 5 European Cohorts in a collaborative study. All studies were designed to study the design of Asthma and allergies. The study extends previous work using interrupter resistance (IRT), a technique that measures the resistance of respiratory system), known and reliable (Eenhuizen et al 2013. The use of IRT technique combined common exposure assessment protocol strengthens the study and increased its validity and reliability. The availability of residence addresses allowed the authors to investigate exposure impacts at different time points and effects of any potential modifies.

However, differences regarding study design, exposure, pollutants lung function measure and statistical analysis continue to limit these studies as direct comparisons cannot be made. As highlight above other limitations relate to found very poor correlations between personal exposures and outdoor air concentrations. No association can be established between traffic indicators variables and lung function main because the researcher are unable to different the different types of pollutants Gehring et al.(2013). There is little heterogeneity of the association between air pollution and FEV and PEF measures between the Cohorts.

Few things the Author s could have done differently?

The authors could made the results more significant by taking care of various limitation in the study by accounting for the following factors.

Correlations between personal exposures and outdoor air concentrations,

Heterogeneity of the association between air pollution and FEV and PEF measures between the Cohorts.

Oxidative stress and inflammation and pollutant specific effects

Provide increased evidence of estimated changes in Lung function with FEV and PEF measures between the 5 Cohorts studied.

Explain. Interpret the results in your own words and then discuss with your colleagues whether you agree or disagree with the author?s interpretations and why.

Similar to other studies the authors have minimum quantitative data to show that exposure may increase the prevalence of clinically decline in lung function. The inability to define the association between heterogeneity air pollution and FEV and PEF measures between the Cohorts is big minus in the current study. The lack correlation between exposures and outdoor air pollutants concentrations is unaccounted. The inability to segregates pollutant types from ambient air pollutants, and near source limit the study to local generalization to the cohorts studied and generalization populations.

Social change impact of the findings

There is minimal social change impact resulting from this specific study, there are no modifiable and/or actionable as well is noted. However, there has been actions on the global scale by WHO and various governments regarding the impact of air pollution in health for example, only one person in ten lives in a city that complies with the WHO Air quality guidelines.Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world (WHO, 2016).

Conclusion

Gehring et al.(2013), reported on correlation between exposure to air pollution and decreased lung function in school children (6-8 years old) using FEV and PEF measurements for NO­2, NOx and PM2.5 absorbance. The study is of significance importance and the result obtained contributed to knowledge and is consistent with other studies. There are however issues of validity and reliability of the data, such that the results of the study can does not allow for local generalization to the cohorts studied and generalization populations.

References

Bacharier,L.B., Strunk, R.C., Mauger, D., White, D., Lemanske, R.F., Sorkness, C.A. (2004). Classifying Asthma Severity in Children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 170:4, 426-432

Chen, Z., Salam,M.T., Eckel, S.P V. Breton,C.V and Gilliland, F.D, (20115)Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children?s Health Study J Thorac Dis. 2015 Jan; 7(1): 46?58. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.12.20

Eenhuzien E., Gehring U.,Wijga A.H., Smit H.A., Fissher, P., Brauer M et al.(2013), Traffic related air polluntion is related to Interrupter Resistance in four year old childen, Eur Respir J 41/;1257-1263

Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, et al. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N EnglJ Med 2004;351:1057-67.

Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, et al. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 2005;16:737-43.

Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, et al. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 2007;369:571-7.

Gehring U. et al. (2013). Air pollution exposure and lung function in children: the ESCAPE project. Environmental Health Perspectives. 121(11-12): 1357-64.

Gotschi T, Heinrich J, Sunyer J, Künzli N. 2008. Long-term effects of ambient air pollution on lung function: a review. Epidemiology 19:690?701.

Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, et al. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environ Health Perspect 2008;116:1433-1438.

McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, et al. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118:1021-6.

McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, et al. Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;359:386-91.

Urman R, McConnell R, Islam T, et al. Associations of children's lung function with ambient air pollution: joint effects of regional and near-roadway pollutants. Thorax 2014;69:540-7

Wallace L , (2010)Correlations of Personal Exposure to Particles with Outdoor Air Measurements: A Review of Recent Studies ; Aerosol Science and Technology 32:15] 25 (2000),http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/027868200303894?

WHO (2016), Ambient Air Pollution : A global assessment of exposure and burden of diseases,http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250141/1/9789241511353-eng.pdf

 







About this question:
STATUS
Answered
QUALITY
Approved
ANSWER RATING

This question was answered on: Feb 21, 2020

PRICE: $24

Solution~00066392364.zip (18.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $24

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free copy (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card. All your purchases are securely protected by PayPal.
SiteLock

Need a similar solution fast, written anew from scratch? Place your own custom order

We have top-notch tutors who can help you with your essay at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments. This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student. New solution orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

Order Now