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CASE STUDIESFORENSIC PROFILING Case Study 1Who Killed
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CASE STUDIES?FORENSIC PROFILING

 

Case Study 1?Who Killed Maggie Mortis?

 

September 15 2008: Maggie Mortis, a forensic scientist in the Gotham City Crime

 

Lab was found dead in her lab. She was working last night on DNA from a homicide

 

investigation. No equipment was stolen from the lab, but DNA samples were missing. Two

 

suspects are in custody?both were seen earlier talking to Ms. Mortis at the corner

 

Starbucks.

 

DNA samples were collected from each suspect, the

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

 

lab director, and the victim Ms. Mortis. DNA was isolated

 

from several crime scene samples including skin cells

 

found under the fingernails of the victim, a few discarded

 

? 15

 

? 13

 

sunflower seed shells, a wad of chewing gum, and a

 

? 11

 

urine sample found on one of the walls of the lab.

 

?9

 

DNA samples collected in this case were prepared

 

by PCR. Three loci (D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317)

 

were loaded and separated on an acrylamide gel. Results

 

?5

 

are shown on the right. There are 10 lanes identified

 

D16S539 locus ?

 

across the top of the gel picture. Each lane contains the

 

14

 

DNA profile of a different individual or crime scene

 

13

 

sample. Lanes 1?4 show the DNA profile of people

 

12

 

11

 

associated with the crime. The fifth lane shows an allelic

 

10

 

marker. This is a commercially prepared sample that

 

9

 

carries the common alleles for each locus. The name of

 

8

 

7

 

each allele is marked on the right hand side of the gel.

 

6

 

The markers allow you to identify and name the alleles

 

carried by an individual. As an example we can see that

 

D7S820 locus ?

 

5

 

Suspect 1 (lane 2) has alleles 11 and 10 at the D7S820

 

15

 

locus. The four crime scene samples are shown in lanes

 

14

 

6?9. Lane 10 carries a second allelic marker.

 

13

 

Start by identifying the alleles carried by each

 

12

 

individual in the chart below. Then try to match them

 

11

 

with one or more of the crime scene samples. The alleles

 

for the first sample have been filled to show you how it is

 

10

 

written.

 

9

 

1. Who is the most likely suspect to murder

 

8

 

Maggie Mortis? Explain your reasoning.

 

7 D13S317 locus ?

 

1. Maggie Mortis

 

2. Suspect 1

 

3. Suspect 2

 

4. Lab Director

 

5. Allelic marker

 

6. Gum sample

 

7. Seed sample

 

8. Urine sample

 

9. Fingernail sample

 

10. Allelic Marker Sample ID

 

Maggie Mortis

 

Suspect 1

 

Suspect 2

 

Lab Director

 

Gum sample

 

Seed sample

 

Urine sample

 

Fingernail sample D16S539 D7S820 D13S317 9,9 10,10 8,14 Case Study 2: Whose Baby is it anyway?

 

A sudden shift in direction, and increase in the intensity of Hurricane Phillip

 

prompted an immediate unscheduled evacuation of the small coastal town of Longhorn,

 

Texas. This included an emergency evacuation of the local hospital. At the time of

 

evacuation three newborn infants were being cared for in the pediatric ward. In the rush

 

and chaos of the evacuation, the ankle identifiers of the infants were somehow removed

 

(possibly as a result of foul play?). All three babies and their parents were safely evacuated

 

to another hospital, but the question of which baby belongs to which parent now surfaces.

 

DNA profiles were prepared for each infant and each parent. Your job as analyst will be to

 

match each of the scrambled infants with the proper set of parents.

 

In this case study, a fingerprint of 3 loci

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

 

(D16S539, D7S820, and D13S317) was used to

 

match parents and infants. There are 11 lanes

 

? 15

 

identified across the top of the gel picture. Each

 

? 13

 

lane contains the fingerprint of a different

 

? 11

 

individual. Lanes 1?3 show the DNA profile of the

 

?9

 

scrambled infants. Each infant was labeled with a

 

number. The fourth lane shows an allelic marker.

 

?5

 

This is a commercially prepared sample that carries

 

the common alleles for each locus. The name of

 

D16S539 locus ?

 

each allele is marked on the right hand side of the

 

14

 

gel. The markers allow you to identify and name

 

13

 

the alleles carried by an individual. As an example

 

12

 

we can see that infant 3 has alleles 11 and 9 at the

 

11

 

10

 

D7S820 locus. The three sets of parents are shown

 

9

 

in lanes 5?10. Each parent is labeled with letters.

 

8

 

Lane 11 carries a second allelic marker.

 

7

 

You can start unscrambling the infants by

 

6

 

identifying and writing down the genotypes for each

 

set of parents at the D7S820 locus. Then, recalling

 

D7S820 locus ?

 

5

 

that the infant must have one allele from each

 

15

 

parent, write down the possible infant genotypes.

 

14

 

There can be as many as 4 possibilities but in some

 

13

 

cases there will be less. For example if the parents

 

12

 

share the same allele then there are really only

 

11

 

three possibilities. If one of the parents is

 

10

 

homozygous, meaning that both copies are the

 

same allele, then there are only two possibilities. A

 

9

 

worksheet on the following page has been prepared

 

8

 

to help you. Next, write down the infant genotypes

 

7

 

and see if any of them are only found in the

 

D13S317 locus ?

 

possibilities of one set of parents. If this is the

 

case, confirm your hypothesis by looking at the

 

1. Infant 1

 

remaining two loci for that match and make sure

 

that the parents match the infant. To fully separate

 

2. Infant 2

 

all the infants to their rightful parents you will

 

3. Infant 3

 

probably have to repeat the analysis with one or

 

4. Allelic marker

 

both additional loci.

 

5. Father A 6. Mother A

 

7. Mother B

 

8. Father B

 

9. Mother C

 

10. Father C.

 

11. Allelic Marker 2. Which infant belongs to which set of

 

parents? Support your conclusion with genetic

 

evidence and reasoning. Parent Analysis Worksheet

 

Instructions

 

Use the following tables to help you analyze the scrambled baby case study. First

 

identify the two alleles for Father A. Write one allele in box 1 and the other in box 2. Next

 

identify the two alleles for Mother A and write one in box 3 and the other in box 4. The

 

white boxes (5?8) are used to determine the possible allele outcomes in the baby. Fill in box

 

5 with the allele from box 1 and box 3. Fill box 6 with the alleles from box 2 and box 3.

 

Continue the pattern for boxes 7 and 8. Repeat this procedure for Parents B and C in the

 

additional tables. (Some of you may recognize these boxes from previous classes as a

 

Punnett square.) Next, determine the genotype for each infant and place it in the fourth

 

table (boxes 9?11). Finally, compare the infant?s genotype with the possible genotypes from

 

each parent (boxes 5?8). If a match occurs write that parent?s letter id in the boxes labeled

 

?Parent matches? (boxes 12?14). The infant genotype may match more than one parent

 

group so make sure you compare all three parent groups. When finished if an infant

 

matches to only one parent group then you can hypothesize that the infant belongs to those

 

parents. Be sure to check your hypothesis using the other two loci. Although the tables are

 

not pre-drawn for you a similar analysis can be performed for the D13 and D16 loci. Father A

 

1 2 3 5 6 4 7 8 Locus

 

D7S820 Locus

 

D7S820 Father C Mother C Infant

 

1 Notes and Observations: Father B Mother B Mother A Locus

 

D7S820 Infant

 

2

 

Infant

 

3 Genotype Parent

 

Match

 

es 9 12 10 13 11 14 Case Study 3: Identity of the Unknown Soldier

 

Lt. Jason Painter was reported missing in action during the Vietnam War, leaving a

 

wife and two small children back at home. Although he was assumed dead, no remains were

 

ever found and the family has been forced to live with the burden of uncertainty as to the

 

whereabouts and condition of their husband and father. Recently, humanitarian expeditions

 

into Vietnam have uncovered a mass grave site containing the remains of several US

 

soldiers. Three of the six soldiers were identified by personal artifacts found on their bodies

 

as members of Lt. Painter?s platoon. The remaining three

 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

 

bodies appear Caucasian but carried no means of

 

? 15

 

identification. DNA samples were collected from each

 

? 13

 

Unknown Soldier. Since he was reported missing long

 

? 11

 

before DNA technology permitted profiling, there is not a

 

?9

 

reference sample of Lt. Painter to confirm identity.

 

However, the Painter family was contacted and submitted

 

?5

 

samples for testing from Sally Painter (the wife), Jessica

 

D16S539 locus ?

 

Painter (the daughter), and John Painter (Jason?s Father).

 

Profiles for the three unknown soldiers and the three

 

14

 

13

 

Painter family members are provided. As an analyst, you

 

12

 

will try to recreate, if possible, Jason painter DNA profile

 

11

 

and see if it matches any of the three unknown soldiers.

 

10

 

By now, you should be used to reading gels. Use the

 

9

 

8

 

three known DNA profiles to provide clues to the profile for

 

7

 

Lt. Painter.

 

6 D7S820 locus ?

 

5 15

 

14

 

13

 

12

 

11

 

10

 

9

 

8 D13S317 locus ? 7 1. Allelic marker

 

2. Unknown Soldier 1

 

3. Unknown Soldier 2

 

4. Unknown Soldier 3

 

5. Allelic marker

 

6. John Painter (father)

 

7. Jessica Painter (daughter)

 

8. Sally Painter (wife)

 

9. Allelic Marker 3. Is it possible that any of the tested unknown

 

soldiers might be Lt. Painter? If so, which one?

 

Explain how you arrived at this conclusion using the

 

provided genetic information. Calculating Locus and Profile Frequencies.

 

Allele frequencies in Caucasian (US) population for 3 STR Loci

 

Allele D16S539 D7S820 D13S317

 

Frequency Calculations Review

 

7

 

----0.018

 

----Allele frequencies: the distribution of an allele in the

 

general population. These are measured in the general

 

8

 

0.018

 

0.151

 

0.113

 

population by the National Institute of Standards and

 

9

 

0.113

 

0.177

 

0.075

 

Technology. Allele frequencies are different for different

 

10

 

0.056

 

0.243

 

0.051

 

populations. Allele frequencies are represented by the

 

11

 

0.321

 

0.207

 

0.339

 

letters p and q. (It doesn?t matter which is which but it

 

is common to label the frequency for the smaller allele p

 

and the frequency for the larger allele q)

 

12

 

0.326

 

0.166

 

0.248

 

Locus Frequencies: The probability that two alleles will

 

occur in a single genotype. The Locus Frequency is

 

13

 

0.146

 

0.035

 

0.124

 

calculated using the equation 2pq if the alleles are

 

different or p2 if the alleles are the same.

 

14

 

0.020

 

0.002

 

0.048

 

Profile Frequencies: Also called the Random Match

 

Probability (RMP). The probability that two multi-loci

 

15

 

--------0.002

 

profiles will match due to chance. It is calculated by

 

multiplying the Locus frequency for each locus

 

used in the profile.

 

Use the allele frequencies provided in the table above to calculate the locus frequency and

 

the profile frequency for the following individuals.

 

4. Locus frequency of D7S820 for Maggie Mortis 5. Profile frequency for suspect 2 6. Locus frequency of D16S539 for Infant 1 7. Profile frequency for Father B 8. Locus frequency of D13S317 for Sally Painter 9. Profile frequency for Unknown Soldier 3

 







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