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I need someone who is an expert in English to help me edit my essay. Please check my introduction, conclusion, spelling and grammar.

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What Is True Dao?

 

Daoism (??) is known as religion or philosophical tradition that has influenced

 

Chinese people more than 2000 years, and it is also characterized as living harmony with

 

Dao (?) and believes in nature. Laozi and Zhuangzi are the two most important

 

philosophers who emerged in creating of Daoism, and they both believed that the way to

 

make people happy was people need to learn live naturally and not being selfish. Mohist,

 

Legalist and Militarist perceived what is true Dao throughout their texts, logics, theories

 

and what they believed in. Understanding what is true Dao is very complicate and not

 

easy, and the term ? literally means the way that make people happy or the way of the

 

virtue. Laozi?s teaching strongly focuses on Dao, and he viewed nature as the order that

 

human beings should be part. In Mohism?s philosophical ideas, universal love is

 

fundamental of this doctrine, but in Legalist and Militarist, the society would function

 

best through strong government, military and also function well through the way(Dao) of

 

deception. Therefore, Mohist?s philosophical ideas were accepted by Daoist because of

 

the concept of universal loves and loves everyone equally, and on other hand, throughout

 

the strict punishments, strong central government and military strategies of Legalists and

 

Militarist, people can see and perceive what the true Dao is.

 

Mohist is one of the Chinese philosophical thoughts in the ancient China, and it

 

develops the true meaning of the proper standard in government and the universal love.

 

Mozi was a Chinese philosopher and thinker who lived around 460 to 391 BCE, and he

 

was pacifist who always tried from one state to the other state to convince the rulers to

 

stop their plans of conquest and fighting for the territory. Mozi?s teaching encompassed

 

the universal love and enlightened self-interest, and his thoughts were heaven loves

 


 

everyone equally, so people need to love others equally and no matter where they came

 

from. The universal love of Maozi is described as the rulers should love people equally

 

and provide them houses, clothes and basic needs, and the universal love is not like love

 

that the parents love their kids. The universal love is for everyone, and it is not selfish,

 

self-interest and love others properly. In Daoism, Laozi saw humanity and nature together

 

as part of the way, and he believed that people who understand the true meaning of Dao

 

would never being selfish and act out of narrow self-interest. The similarity between

 

Daoist and Mohist are when people understand these ideologies, they would not be

 

selfish and would stay away for politics and territory wars. The views of Mohist that

 

contrasted to Daost are Mozi believed that the proper standard in government was

 

following heaven because heaven loves and benefits men universally, and heaven will

 

bless people if they do right things and will curse or punish people who harm and hate

 

others. Laozi believed that there is no natural disaster, and human makes the disaster.

 

Mohist is somehow similar to Daoist, and the two ideologies all strongly convince the

 

rulers not being selfish and should put people ahead of their own self-interests, and

 

develop the ideas of governing through Daoist and Mohist.

 

The predominant theory of the Qin rulers was Legalism(??) , and their reasoning

 

supported cruel control, constrained work, and subservience to the sovereign. They

 

utilized their labor for huge development extends that permitted them to field and supply

 

huge armed forces, and they were savage in war and in peacetime as well. Before the first

 

emperor Qin Shihuang unified China in 221 BC, there were a lot of the Confucian

 

scholar, and Confucius taught that people are basically good. However, after Qin emperor

 

conquered the six states and unified China, he burned Confucian texts and persecuted

 


 

scholars have been remarked him as a ruthless, cruel and harsh emperor in Chinese

 

history. The Legalists believed that human was evil, and people would only care and

 

concern for their own benefit and interests. The Legalists believed that obeying the law

 

was the best way to establish strong government and punishing people would be the best

 

way to make them listen and follow the laws. Basically, humans are selfish in Legalist,

 

and Qin emperor took advantage of human selfish hearts to conquer six states because

 

people who had the selfish hearts would do anything to make them successful. Qin

 

emperor and the Legalists banned and tried to burn any book that related to Confucian

 

texts in order to stop the criticism. Confucian thoughts were still survived because Qin

 

emperor mostly burned the books in some big cities, and Confucian thoughts were also

 

often handed down orally from the masters. The employment of Legalist thinkers were

 

Shang Yang, Han Fei, and Shang Yang was the practical politician and also deny

 

Confucian ideas of humanness as to impractical. In the modern world, when people try to

 

understand the Legalist, they would study and do research on the Confucian thoughts first

 

because these two ideologies are very different and opposive. Confucius and Daoist are

 

somehow similar because they both view the world not evil and selfish as the Legalist

 

even thought Laozi focuses on nature or a Way(Dao) and Confucian focuses on

 

humanness(ren) . The teaching of Laozi is based on the way (Dao) and can define as the

 

way to be successful and a way to be the Perfect Man (??). In the contrast to Laozi?s

 

thoughts, the Legalist seems as the way to create strong government, military and as the

 

way to control people in order to make the rulers gain more power. Understanding a Way

 

(Dao) in Daoist would make people successful and happy, and developing Legalist(??)

 


 

would benefit only the rulers and they would be reward based on what they have done to

 

the rulers and country.

 

The Art of War(????) is the Chinese military strategy book which was written

 

during the Spring and Autumn period, and still been used in modern day. Sunzi (??) was

 

a Chinese general and military strategy who lived during the Spring and Autumn period,

 

and he was known as the author of the Art of War(????). According to chapter 7 of De

 

Bary, ?the Sunzi is famous for certain strategic epigrams, such as the military is a way

 

(Dao) of deception. When he seeks advantage, lure him. When he is in chaos, take him.

 

When he is strong, avoid hi. (p. 217)? Sunzi advised the rulers the best strategies to

 

defeat the enemy without fighting, and his strategies were encompassed trickery and

 

knowing knowledge. Suzi also mentioned a way of knowing victory such as ?Knowing

 

the other and knowing oneself, In one hundred battles no danger. Not knowing the other

 

and knowing oneself, One victory for one defeat. Not knowing the other and not knowing

 

oneself, In every battle certain danger. (p218)? Sunzi?s military strategies of the victory

 

were using wisely by many emperor starting the Spring and Autumn period until

 

contemporary China, and he also mentioned that the battles of the skilled are without

 

reputation for wisdom and without merit for courage. To win the battle, people should

 

have skills and their own strategies rather than using weapons, and that?s what Sunzi?s

 

ideas about the way to win in the war and no matter how they trick the enemy. In the Art

 

of War(????), ? Knowing the other and knowing oneself? means the rulers and soldiers

 

must always prepare to fight and know what the other side strategy in order to trick them.

 

Sunzi?s ideology about Dao is very different than others because the military is a way

 


 

(Dao) of deception, and it is liked a strategy and military orgnization to win the battle

 

without expending resources. Dao in Daoist is the way to living in harmony with

 

nature, and it is a pacific idea. However, Dao in Sunzi is the way to trick people for selfinterest. Although Sunzi did not say that people need to be selfish in order to win the war,

 

his military strategies are all about tricks and deception. The Legalist and Sunzi both have

 

theoretical resemblance of the way of deception and forces, and only benefit themselves

 

by taking advantage of other.

 

The Maohist, Legalist and Sunzi?s military strategy have developed different

 

ideas of governing throughout their own Dao, and their Dao have not bear theoretical

 

with Daoist except Maohist?s the ideas of universal love. To understand what true Dao is,

 

people have to understand which philosophical ideas contrast or similar to Daoist. Mozi?s

 

ideas are somehow similar to Laozi?s thoughts because they both focused on the way to

 

be successful and a way to love people by keeping away from the politics and war of

 

territory and should live in harmony. The Legalist is more focused on a way to force

 

people obey the laws, and policies can make people scare, and humans are basically

 

selfish. Sunzi?s military strategy is focused on the knowledge and skills to win the battle

 

in order to benefit themselves and for their own interests. The Maohist, Legalist and

 

Sunzi?s military strategy have brought the ancient China and contemporary China the

 

ideologies and thoughts of the way to be successful, happy and develop the different

 

ways of governing and controlling the country.

 

Reference:

 

Frederick Mote. Intellectual Foundation of China. N.Y.Knopf,1989 (2nd edition)

 


 

"Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., n.d.

 

Web. 30 Aug. 2016.

 

William Theodore De Bary, Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press;

 

2nd edition (July 1999)

 


 

 







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