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Hi, I need someone who is an expert in English to help me edit my


I need someone who is an expert in English to help me edit my essay. Please check my introduction, conclusion, spelling and grammar.


What Is True Dao?


Daoism (??) is known as religion or philosophical tradition that has influenced


Chinese people more than 2000 years, and it is also characterized as living harmony with


Dao (?) and believes in nature. Laozi and Zhuangzi are the two most important


philosophers who emerged in creating of Daoism, and they both believed that the way to


make people happy was people need to learn live naturally and not being selfish. Mohist,


Legalist and Militarist perceived what is true Dao throughout their texts, logics, theories


and what they believed in. Understanding what is true Dao is very complicate and not


easy, and the term ? literally means the way that make people happy or the way of the


virtue. Laozi?s teaching strongly focuses on Dao, and he viewed nature as the order that


human beings should be part. In Mohism?s philosophical ideas, universal love is


fundamental of this doctrine, but in Legalist and Militarist, the society would function


best through strong government, military and also function well through the way(Dao) of


deception. Therefore, Mohist?s philosophical ideas were accepted by Daoist because of


the concept of universal loves and loves everyone equally, and on other hand, throughout


the strict punishments, strong central government and military strategies of Legalists and


Militarist, people can see and perceive what the true Dao is.


Mohist is one of the Chinese philosophical thoughts in the ancient China, and it


develops the true meaning of the proper standard in government and the universal love.


Mozi was a Chinese philosopher and thinker who lived around 460 to 391 BCE, and he


was pacifist who always tried from one state to the other state to convince the rulers to


stop their plans of conquest and fighting for the territory. Mozi?s teaching encompassed


the universal love and enlightened self-interest, and his thoughts were heaven loves



everyone equally, so people need to love others equally and no matter where they came


from. The universal love of Maozi is described as the rulers should love people equally


and provide them houses, clothes and basic needs, and the universal love is not like love


that the parents love their kids. The universal love is for everyone, and it is not selfish,


self-interest and love others properly. In Daoism, Laozi saw humanity and nature together


as part of the way, and he believed that people who understand the true meaning of Dao


would never being selfish and act out of narrow self-interest. The similarity between


Daoist and Mohist are when people understand these ideologies, they would not be


selfish and would stay away for politics and territory wars. The views of Mohist that


contrasted to Daost are Mozi believed that the proper standard in government was


following heaven because heaven loves and benefits men universally, and heaven will


bless people if they do right things and will curse or punish people who harm and hate


others. Laozi believed that there is no natural disaster, and human makes the disaster.


Mohist is somehow similar to Daoist, and the two ideologies all strongly convince the


rulers not being selfish and should put people ahead of their own self-interests, and


develop the ideas of governing through Daoist and Mohist.


The predominant theory of the Qin rulers was Legalism(??) , and their reasoning


supported cruel control, constrained work, and subservience to the sovereign. They


utilized their labor for huge development extends that permitted them to field and supply


huge armed forces, and they were savage in war and in peacetime as well. Before the first


emperor Qin Shihuang unified China in 221 BC, there were a lot of the Confucian


scholar, and Confucius taught that people are basically good. However, after Qin emperor


conquered the six states and unified China, he burned Confucian texts and persecuted



scholars have been remarked him as a ruthless, cruel and harsh emperor in Chinese


history. The Legalists believed that human was evil, and people would only care and


concern for their own benefit and interests. The Legalists believed that obeying the law


was the best way to establish strong government and punishing people would be the best


way to make them listen and follow the laws. Basically, humans are selfish in Legalist,


and Qin emperor took advantage of human selfish hearts to conquer six states because


people who had the selfish hearts would do anything to make them successful. Qin


emperor and the Legalists banned and tried to burn any book that related to Confucian


texts in order to stop the criticism. Confucian thoughts were still survived because Qin


emperor mostly burned the books in some big cities, and Confucian thoughts were also


often handed down orally from the masters. The employment of Legalist thinkers were


Shang Yang, Han Fei, and Shang Yang was the practical politician and also deny


Confucian ideas of humanness as to impractical. In the modern world, when people try to


understand the Legalist, they would study and do research on the Confucian thoughts first


because these two ideologies are very different and opposive. Confucius and Daoist are


somehow similar because they both view the world not evil and selfish as the Legalist


even thought Laozi focuses on nature or a Way(Dao) and Confucian focuses on


humanness(ren) . The teaching of Laozi is based on the way (Dao) and can define as the


way to be successful and a way to be the Perfect Man (??). In the contrast to Laozi?s


thoughts, the Legalist seems as the way to create strong government, military and as the


way to control people in order to make the rulers gain more power. Understanding a Way


(Dao) in Daoist would make people successful and happy, and developing Legalist(??)



would benefit only the rulers and they would be reward based on what they have done to


the rulers and country.


The Art of War(????) is the Chinese military strategy book which was written


during the Spring and Autumn period, and still been used in modern day. Sunzi (??) was


a Chinese general and military strategy who lived during the Spring and Autumn period,


and he was known as the author of the Art of War(????). According to chapter 7 of De


Bary, ?the Sunzi is famous for certain strategic epigrams, such as the military is a way


(Dao) of deception. When he seeks advantage, lure him. When he is in chaos, take him.


When he is strong, avoid hi. (p. 217)? Sunzi advised the rulers the best strategies to


defeat the enemy without fighting, and his strategies were encompassed trickery and


knowing knowledge. Suzi also mentioned a way of knowing victory such as ?Knowing


the other and knowing oneself, In one hundred battles no danger. Not knowing the other


and knowing oneself, One victory for one defeat. Not knowing the other and not knowing


oneself, In every battle certain danger. (p218)? Sunzi?s military strategies of the victory


were using wisely by many emperor starting the Spring and Autumn period until


contemporary China, and he also mentioned that the battles of the skilled are without


reputation for wisdom and without merit for courage. To win the battle, people should


have skills and their own strategies rather than using weapons, and that?s what Sunzi?s


ideas about the way to win in the war and no matter how they trick the enemy. In the Art


of War(????), ? Knowing the other and knowing oneself? means the rulers and soldiers


must always prepare to fight and know what the other side strategy in order to trick them.


Sunzi?s ideology about Dao is very different than others because the military is a way



(Dao) of deception, and it is liked a strategy and military orgnization to win the battle


without expending resources. Dao in Daoist is the way to living in harmony with


nature, and it is a pacific idea. However, Dao in Sunzi is the way to trick people for selfinterest. Although Sunzi did not say that people need to be selfish in order to win the war,


his military strategies are all about tricks and deception. The Legalist and Sunzi both have


theoretical resemblance of the way of deception and forces, and only benefit themselves


by taking advantage of other.


The Maohist, Legalist and Sunzi?s military strategy have developed different


ideas of governing throughout their own Dao, and their Dao have not bear theoretical


with Daoist except Maohist?s the ideas of universal love. To understand what true Dao is,


people have to understand which philosophical ideas contrast or similar to Daoist. Mozi?s


ideas are somehow similar to Laozi?s thoughts because they both focused on the way to


be successful and a way to love people by keeping away from the politics and war of


territory and should live in harmony. The Legalist is more focused on a way to force


people obey the laws, and policies can make people scare, and humans are basically


selfish. Sunzi?s military strategy is focused on the knowledge and skills to win the battle


in order to benefit themselves and for their own interests. The Maohist, Legalist and


Sunzi?s military strategy have brought the ancient China and contemporary China the


ideologies and thoughts of the way to be successful, happy and develop the different


ways of governing and controlling the country.




Frederick Mote. Intellectual Foundation of China. N.Y.Knopf,1989 (2nd edition)



"Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., n.d.


Web. 30 Aug. 2016.


William Theodore De Bary, Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press;


2nd edition (July 1999)




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