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The key to seeing why the subsidy does not increase value is to
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The key to seeing why the subsidy does not increase value is to realize what scarcity implies.

 

The production of more bread requires more resources, and these resources must be drawn from

 

other uses. To get the extra bread, consumers must do with less of other goods.

 

In the simple model illustrated above, the value and cost of the extra bread can be measured. The

 

value of the extra bread is the amount that people are willing to pay for it. Consumers were not

 

willing to buy the extra bread at the old price, so it must be less valuable to them than the old

 

price. It will, in fact, be equal to the extra area under the demand curve, or area b+c+d in graph

 

above.

 

Production of this extra bread requires resources that have more value than the value of the extra

 

bread. Marginal cost is the value that must be paid to resources in order to produce one more loaf

 

of bread, and this value exceeds the value of the loaf with the subsidy. The extra cost will be the

 

area under the old supply curve, or area a+b+c+d. The subsidy causes businesses to take

 

valuable resources and to transform them into less valuable output. There is a waste in this

 

process, and the triangular area a measures this waste. Economists call this area welfare loss.

 

Although bread subsidies are wasteful, they can be politically popular. People see the good side

 

of the subsidy--the cheap bread. What they usually do not understand is the bad side of the

 

subsidy. They do not realize that the higher prices of other goods can be related to the low price

 

of bread. An economic system is a complicated system, and many of the cause-effect

 

relationships take a good deal of abstract thinking to comprehend.

 

If a government subsidy increasing the amount of bread does not help consumers, perhaps a

 

contraction of the amount of bread will. The discussion of consumers' and producers' surpluses

 

suggested that producers or consumers could gang up on the other and transfer surplus. Suppose

 

that bread buyers unite and restrict purchases of bread. This union, which changes our

 

assumption of price taking, will force down the price of bread.

 


 

The graph below illustrates the story of the consumers' union. For the union to be successful,

 

each buyer must restrict purchases as Jane does in the graph. Consumers as a whole will be better

 

off as a result of this action because consumers' surplus will rise. Prior to the union, consumers'

 

surplus will be a+e on the graph, but after the price reduction, it will be a+c. As long as area c is

 

greater than area e, the consumers' union benefits consumers.

 


 

However, the union does not benefit society as a whole because the Martha Smiths are as much

 

members of society as are the Jane Does. The consumers are better off only because they have

 

seized value that was already there, captured by the producers. But in the process of making this

 

transfer, value equal to areas e+f was lost.

 

Furthermore, there are changes that could improve consumer well-being. If consumers could

 

continue to buy Q1 at price P1, they would be willing to buy additional loaves at a higher price.

 

Another loaf has greater value to them than the resources needed to make it. If they could keep

 

the low price of P1 for quantity Q1 and then pay extra for additional loaves, they could capture

 

some of the wasted value. By restricting bread production, resources have shifted from bread

 

production to other uses that are less valuable to society than the value of foregone bread.

 

QD = 3750 - 725P

 

P = 5.17 - 0.0014Q

 

QS = 920 + 690P

 

P = -1.33 + 0.00145Q

 

QD @ P = 2.50

 

QD = 3750 - 725(2.50)

 

QD = 1937.50

 


 

C.S. under free market: = [(5.17 + 2.00) ? 2] x 2300 (2.00 x 2300) = 8245.5 - 4600

 

C.S. under free market = 3645.5

 

C.S. under support price: = [(5.17 + 2.50) ? 2] x 1937.50 (2.50 x 1937.50) = 7430.31 - 483.75

 

C.S. under price support = 2586.56

 

Price support results in a loss of $1058.94 in consumer surplus.

 


 


 


 

Price floors create surpluses by fixing the price above the equilibrium price. At the price

 

set by the floor, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded.

 


 


 


 

In agriculture, price floors have created persistent surpluses of a wide range of

 

agricultural commodities. Governments typically purchase the amount of the surplus or

 

impose production restrictions in an attempt to reduce the surplus.

 


 


 


 

Price ceilings create shortages by setting the price below the equilibrium. At the ceiling

 

price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied.

 


 


 


 

Rent controls are an example of a price ceiling, and thus they create shortages of rental

 

housing.

 


 


 


 

It is sometimes the case that rent controls create ?backdoor? arrangements, ranging

 

from requirements that tenants rent items that they do not want to outright bribes, that

 

result in rents higher than would exist in the absence of the ceiling.

 


 

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